Oregonian Khatru

I was obviously in error in my previous entry, in that I said the rain was over in the Willamette Valley—it was two months almost to the day before I could find a clear moonless night to delve back into Herschel hunting.

The weekend of May 12th lived up to its forecast: two almost-perfect and inviting nights in which to try to catch up on the vast number of early-spring galaxies that I still needed to observe in Lynx, Leo, Leo Minor, Crater, Corvus, and Hydra (the Ursa Major galaxies were also numerous, but given that Ursa Major is circumpolar, there was less of a rush there). I had been following the constellations’ nightly traverse of the meridian on Sky Safari during the cloudy stretch, and knew that my quest to complete the Herschels in 2018 was going to be for naught; I would need a whole week of clear skies to even come close to getting through all these galaxies, particularly in the Leos, where I had 40 Herschel galaxies to go. This was also to say nothing of Virgo (35 remaining galaxies), which would be past the meridian after midnight in May, and the Coma/Canes regions (33 galaxies still remaining), which would be visible a bit longer due to their higher declinations.

Despite having concluded that the Herschel lists would require at least one more round of the seasons, I still intended to make as much headway as possible on the galaxies of the spring. On my last trip out, I had swept up most of the targets in Hydra and Crater that still remained, but I also had a number of objects left in Corvus in addition to a couple each in the low-south constellations I’d ostensibly finished. My plan was to finish Crater, Corvus, and Hydra, and to dig into the more-southerly Virgo galaxies (having wiped out most of the Virgo cluster last May when I mopped up all 150+ targets on Sky Atlas 2000.0‘s Chart B). And despite having my sights set on the many galaxies in eastern Leo, I would probably have to give up on most of those for the season; Leo would already be well past the meridian by the time I finished the southerly stuff that I also needed to get.

Dan B, Oggie, and Oggie’s ladyfriend had also ventured out to Eagle’s Ridge to take advantage of the clear sky and the weekend; Jerry had been fighting a nasty cold and wasn’t feeling up to the trip. And it was not long after I got set up that I was fighting my own (rather insistent) health issue.

I don’t know quite what menu item from the previous few days set me off, but given that Australopithicenes have always been lactose intolerant, it was something of a miracle that I’d made this many trips up the local mountains with nary an issue before. That luck ran out on this particular night, and the churning in my guts was audible on my voice memos as I was dictating notes on the various galaxies.

These notes are the more-narrative style I’ve used a couple of times here; I don’t intend to do them this way all the time, but they’re more readable than my standard style.


EAGLE’S RIDGE SPUR ROAD (43° 48′ 17.9496” N, 122° 42′ 45.6912” W)
MOON: 28 days; 4% illuminated, rose at 4:24 AM
SQM: not checked
NELM: 6.7
WEATHER CONDITIONS: temps in low 50s, no breeze, some dew on exposed plastic elements but none on optical surfaces or telescopes

Others present: Dan B, Oggie G, Leticia

All observations: 12.5 f/5 Discovery truss-tube Dobsonian, 14mm ES 82˚ eyepiece (112x, 0.7˚ TFOV) unless otherwise noted

NGCs 3636, 3637 (Crt): These two fairly-obvious (but not super-bright) galaxies are flanking and somewhat N of a 7th-magnitude star. NGC 3636 is NP the 7th-mag star by 1.5′. It’s pretty small—0.67′ round—and has a bright core and possibly a substellar nucleus. Its halo is quite diffuse and faint; the core is the galaxy’s most notable feature. NGC 3637 is NF the 7th-mag star by 3′. It’s much bigger than 3636—1.25′ round—with a somewhat brighter core and a definite substellar nucleus. 3.25′ SF 3637 is a 13th-mag star. NP the 7th-mag star is a kite-shaped asterism; the kite’s tip is NP the 7th-mag star by 9′; the four stars in the kite shape are all 9th-mag and fainter; it’s 11′ from the southern tip of the kite to the star at the kite’s northern tip (which is N slightly F); stars are SP and SF the top star by 7′ and 6′ respectively; the dimmest star in the diamond (11th-mag) is the F-most star; the others are all 10th-magnitude. Back to the galaxies now that it’s a bit darker—the galaxies are more impressive now. N of 3637 by 7′ is a 13.5-mag star. F-most star in kite is N slightly P 3637 by 12.5′.

NGC 4024 (Crv): This is another pretty small, subtle little galaxy. It’s probably elliptical [actually a barred spiral], judging from its brightness profile. It has a small bright core and stellar nucleus; the core seems to be almost elongated slightly SP-NF. The halo is pretty diffuse, not well-defined, but small and vaguely roundish. Dimensions 1.0′ x 0.75′. There’s a Y-shaped pattern of stars P and very slightly S of the galaxy; the star on the SP of the Y is the brightest; the star on the N fork is second-brightest. The star in the middle of the ‘Y’ is faintest. The ‘Y’ star closest to the galaxy is 3.25′ from galaxy to the SP; the star at the center of the ‘Y’ is 2.5′ P the previous star and is 12th-magnitude; 2.5′ N very slightly P that last star is an 11.5-magnitude star. Back to the middle of the ‘Y’: the brightest star is S slightly P the middle star by 2′. A star between the galaxy and the closest star in the ‘Y’ is 13.5-mag and 1.5′ S very slightly P the galaxy. N of the galaxy by 3.5′ is a 12th-mag star that has a 14.5-mag companion N very slightly P by 0.67′. N very slightly P the galaxy by 18′ is the brightest star of a very small triangle (which at 9th magnitude is also the brightest in the field); to the P and SP of that star by 1.5′ are 13th-mag stars. SF the galaxy by 5′ is a double star of 13th and 14th magnitudes; the brighter component is N of the fainter by 0.25′.

NGCs 4038, 4039 (Crv): This one’s a classic—so much detail! As a whole, this object is very large. Both components are equally long (3.5′) but the N-most galaxy (4038) is almost twice as thick, 2.0′ thick across the middle. 4038 has not so much a core as a vaguely-defined “inner region”, which is much brighter and more mottled than that of 4039. This inner region makes up most of galaxy’s dimensions; 4038 much more detailed overall, with a better-defined halo, although the halo is not at all extensive. A 14th-magnitude star is 0.25′ off 4038’s NP edge and a faint star is embedded toward the galaxy’s NP end. The S galaxy (4039) is more diffuse, and about 1.25′ thick. 4039 is elongated P slightly S-F slightly N; 4038 is angled P slightly N-F slightly S; the two connect at their F ends. The notch between the two at the P end looks to be 0.5′ at widest. There’s a threshold star 1′ following point where two galaxies intersect. The whole thing reminds of a cocktail shrimp (Oggie says a fortune cookie). 5.5′ N very slightly P the N edge of 4038 is the S-most and brightest (9th magnitude) vertex of a triangle; N slightly P that star by 6.5′ is the second vertex (magnitude 11.3); the third vertex is NP by 7′ and is 11th magnitude. Just on the N slightly P edge of field (21′ from galaxies) is a 9th magnitude star. 16′ F the galaxies and very slightly N is an 11th-magnitude star; another 11th-mag star is P somewhat N that star by 6′. 5.75′ SF the point where the galaxies intersect is a double star of 13th and 14th magnitudes; components are separated SP-NF by 0.25′; the brighter component is slightly closer to the galaxies. 4.25′ due S of the S edge of 4039 is a 12th magnitude star; 5′ S very slightly P that star is a 10th magnitude star; 5′ SF that star is a 12th magnitude star with a 13.5 magnitude companion S of it by 0.75′.

NGCs 4027, 4027A (Crv): 4027: This is a very interesting galaxy. It’s elongated N-S, and quite large (2.5′ x 1.5′). Its core is irregular-shaped and offset toward the S end. The core/spiral arm is almost ‘C’ shaped starting at the S end, looping along the P edge and curling back toward the NF edge. The brightest part of the core is off to the SP quadrant. There seems to be a 14.5-magnitude star embedded in the halo in the “open area” inside the spiral arm/darker area in the halo where the arm doesn’t reach. The halo is more diffuse on the F side. There’s an occasional glimpse of another galaxy [4027A] 4′ S slightly P 4027—it comes and goes, even in averted vision. It’s impossible to determine its dimensions; it’s just a tiny faint diffuse glow. 4027 is bracketed inside a triangle of 12.5 and 13th magnitude stars; two of the stars are to the N; one is due N, one is NF and one is SF; the star to the N (which is also slightly P) is the brightest at 12.5 magnitude and is 3.5′ from the center of the galaxy; the two stars F the galaxy are equidistant from the galaxy at 3.25′ from the center of the galaxy and are both 13th magnitude. F and very slightly N of the galaxy is a mish-mash of stars; a small right triangle is closest to galaxy, followed by a pair; S slightly F that pair is a pair of brighter stars; the stars in this whole asterism range from 11th to 13th magnitude; the brightest in the group is the right-angle (NF) vertex of the triangle. P the galaxy by 7.5′ is an 11th magnitude star.

In my gastric distress, I had forgotten that I’d taken notes on NGCs 4105 and 4106 on my last excursion, and I duplicated the observation. A waste of valuable time, but there are worse ways to do so.

NGCs 4105, 4106 (Hya): [I had previously taken notes on this pair on 3/11/18] These two are almost onto the mountainside here, they’re so low. 4105 is P and very slightly N 4106. The two are separated by about 1′ core-to-core. Due S of 4105 is an 11th magnitude star that’s 2.5′ S of galaxy. The galaxy is very slightly elongated N-S, and is 1.25′ x 1.0′. It has a much more diffuse larger halo and brighter core with a substellar nucleus. 4106 is roundish, and 1.0′ round. It has a very small vaguely-defined core. A 9.5-magnitude star is NF 4106 by 14′, and is the second-brightest in the field. SP 4105 by 21′ is a 10.5-magnitude star, brightest in the field, right on the field’s edge. An arc of three stars precedes the galaxies; the middle star is brightest of the three at 12th-mag and is 7′ P very slightly N 4105; this bright star has fainter stars S (13th magnitude) and NF (12th magnitude).

Q: Does an astronomer shit in the woods?
A: He does if it’s too far to drive home and it’s an absolute biological imperative.

It was at this point that the monstrous Lovecraftian mass in my guts decided that it was sick of being put off. Fortunately, I had prepared for this eventuality (with toilet paper and plenty of hand sanitizer in the van), but the concept was still awkward and the execution even more so. Apologizing to the other observers for the need to use headlights, I drove quickly and desperately to the end of the spur road and purged the offending toxic material from my system.

I certainly felt better when I returned to my scope, despite having shot my night vision all to hell. Without having to worry about that particular problem anymore, I was able to more fully concentrate on my observing for the rest of the night, even if that night was shortened by the whole mess. (It took just over an hour between sets of notes to deal with the issue.) But I was able to finish out Hydra regardless.

NGC 5078, IC 879, IC 874, NGC 5101 (Hya)—We’re pushing the horizon now. 5078 is definitely an inclined spiral, elongated NP-SF. It’s about 2.0′ x 0.75′, and quite bright, with a substellar nucleus and a small core that’s not that much brighter than the halo. This is an interesting galaxy with “something going on” that is hard to discern; it has an odd appearance somehow, as if the brightening one would expect along it’s length isn’t there—a dust lane? SP 5078 by 2.5′ is an indeterminate glow [IC 879] that’s hard to see in direct vision, sometimes fleeting in direct and better in averted vision. In the starfield due F 5078 by 9′ is an 8th-magnitude star; a 9th-magnitude star is 10′ N of the 8th-magnitude star; there’s a pair F slightly S the 8th-magnitude star by 7′; the southern of the pair is the brighter (9.5 and 11th magnitudes), and they’re separated N-S by 1.5′. NF 5078 by 4′ is a 12th-magnitude star. Due N of the galaxy by 8.5′ is a 13th-magnitude star. 17′ S very slightly F the galaxy is a 10.5-magnitude star. P slightly S of the galaxy by 7.5′ is a 10.5-magnitude star. 17′ SP are a pair of equally-spaced, equally-bright double stars; the dimmer component of each is separated by 3.5′; each pair is separated by 0.75′; S of the S-most of the pair by 2.5′ is another galaxy [IC 874]. This is quite faint and smallish (0.75′ round). It has a somewhat brighter core and a tiny faint stellar nucleus. This galaxy is very diffuse and difficult to see. 18′ F very slightly S of the 8th-magnitude star that’s due F 5078 is another galaxy [5101]. This one is 23′ from 5078. It’s longish—1.75′ x 1.25’—and elongated P very slightly N-F very slightly S. It’s slightly brighter than 5078, with a bright core and a faint stellar nucleus. It has a diffuse but well-defined halo. Due P 5101 by 0.75′ from the galaxy’s nucleus is a 13th-magnitude star; due N of that star by 3.75′ (3.5′ from the nucleus) is a 10.5-magnitude star, and 4′ SP the galaxy is a 13.5-magnitude star.

NGC 5061 (Hya): Still scraping the low reaches here. This one is even brighter than the previous few, with an obvious, well-defined halo, a much brighter small core, and a bright stellar nucleus. It’s slightly elongated P-F, 2.0′ x 1.75′. Quite a nice galaxy! 2.5′ almost due F (slightly S) is an 8.5-magnitude star; a small triangle of faint stars is off to the F side; the brightest in the triangle (at 12th magnitude) is 1.5′ due F that 8.5-magnitude star. 3′ N very slightly P the galaxy is a 13th-magnitude star. Another 13th-mag star is NF the galaxy by 4′; also NF galaxy by 18′ is a double star, which has almost equal components (the N-most may be slightly fainter); these are separated by 0.25′, and oriented N very slightly F-S very slightly P to each other.

With Hydra finished, I had a choice: move over to the setting Leo, head up to the still-prominent Canes Venatici and Coma Berenices, or continue on into Virgo. I chose the latter, as to not fall further behind my schedule.

NGCs 5084, 5068, 5087 (Vir): These three (they’re too far apart to qualify as an actual trio) are N of Gamma Hya, and very different to each other. 5084 is a very long, skinny galaxy, obviously an edge-on spiral. It’s elongated P slightly S-F slightly N, 3.0′ x 0.5′. It has a bright core and a stellar nucleus that are offset toward the F end of the galaxy. The halo is pretty well-defined and extended on the P end. The galaxy is in the middle of a trapezoid of six faint stars; on the NF end of the trapezoid is the closest vertex to the galaxy, a 14th-magnitude star 2.25′ F the galaxy’s nucleus; S very slightly F the galaxy by 4.25′ is a 13th-magnitude star; SP galaxy by 5.5′ is a 12.5-mag star that’s the brightest in the trapezoid; 5.5′ P and very very slightly S of the galaxy is a 13.5-magnitude star; just N of that star by 1.75′ is a 14.5-magnitude star. NP the galaxy by 8.5′ is a 13.5-magnitude star. Due F the galaxy by 12′ is a 9th-magnitude star. There’s another 9th-magnitude star 21′ due S of the galaxy. NGC 5068 is more than a 42′ field N slightly P 5084. This one is a huge diffuse round glow, with very little central concentration, just a (very) slightly brighter core that makes up half the size of the halo. The galaxy is about 4.25′ round, a poorly-defined galaxy that is nonetheless quite obvious. There’s a 14.5-magnitude star just on the N very slightly F edge of the halo. 0.5′ due P the edge of the halo is another 14.5-magnitude star, and a 14th-magnitude star is just off the SP edge of the halo. A 9.5-magnitude star is SF the galaxy by 15′, and a 10.5-magnitude star is NP the galaxy by 11.5′. NF the galaxy by 22′ is an 11th-magnitude star, and 13′ N of that star is NGC 5087. This galaxy is quite bright and slightly elongated N-S [a slow-moving satellite just crossed the galaxy]. It has an obvious but not overly-bright core and a stellar nucleus. It’s about 1.25′ x 0.875′ and very well-defined, with no “searching for edges.” 4′ N very slightly P 5087 is an 11th-magnitude star with a threshold star 1′ due P it. Due N of the galaxy by 15′ is a 9th-magnitude star. On the P side of the galaxy is a group of six stars: a triangle SP the galaxy (the brightest star in the triangle, the F-most vertex, is 10th magnitude, 7.5′ from galaxy; the P-most in the triangle is only slightly dimmer [10.5-magnitude] and 9′ from the galaxy, while the vertex to the S is threshold-level), a close pair due P the galaxy by 9′ (the N-most is much brighter; these are 10th and 12thmagnitudes and separated by 0.5′) and a single star of 9th magnitude 8′ P slightly N the galaxy. There’s also an 8th-magnitude star 17′ S of the galaxy.

NGC 5134, IC 4237 (Vir)—Seeing is decreasing now, but NGC 5134 is kind of impressive, brightish and obvious. It doesn’t have a bright core but has a prominent stellar nucleus, and is fairly evenly illuminated. It’s elongated NP-SF, 2.0′ x 0.75′, and pretty well-defined, but has a smoother brightness profile than most edge-ons (?). There are several faint stars around it; the brightest, at 10th magnitude, is F very slightly N of the galaxy by 9.5′; it may have a fainter companion NF; these stars are the NP end of a squiggle that stretches to the SF edge of the field. SF the galaxy by 8.5′ is a 11.5-magnitude star. Just off the NP edge of field, 23′ from 5134, is a 7th-mag star. Another galaxy [IC 4237] is due P NGC 5134 by 11′; it’s much more diffuse and fainter, with much less central concentration. Dimensions are difficult to tell, but it’s elongated NP-SF, and may have a threshold star just off F end. Between the two galaxies is a 13th-magnitude star, and NF that star by 4′ is a 13.5-magnitude star.

NGCs 5018, 5022 (Vir)—5018 is much the more obvious of these two, and looks like an elliptical. It’s 1.67′ x 1.25′, elongated P-F. The galaxy is pretty bright and well-defined, with an obvious brighter core and stellar nucleus. 6.25′ P and slightly N of galaxy is a 10th-magnitude star. A threshold star is 1′ off the edge of the galaxy’s halo on the F side, with another threshold star 2′ N of the galaxy. A 14th-magnitude star is 4.5′ S very slightly P galaxy. A 12th-magnitude star is 4′ F and very slightly S of the galaxy; a 13.5-magnitude star is due F that star by 1.5′. NF the galaxy by 7′ is an 11th-magnitude star; S slightly F that star by 2.5′ is NGC 5022: this galaxy is visible only sporadically. It’s a thin, undefined streak, 2.0′ x 0.3′?, and elongated S slightly P-N slightly F. I’m barely capable of holding 5022 in direct vision, as seeing has gotten poor and it may be quite faint at the best of times. It has a faint trace of a core but a definite nucleus. I was fortunate to see it, as it could have been passed over in current conditions.

 Oggie and his girlfriend had left by this point, and now Dan was packing up. With even Virgo past the meridian, I was quickly running out of time there as well, and I decided to call it a night. The next night was forecast to be as good or better than this one had been, so I only slightly reluctantly made the decision to tear down and head for home.


Thoroughly lactose-free, I headed up to Eagle’s Ridge the next night a bit earlier than the previous. I knew I would be alone tonight: Dan and Oggie were planning to check out a couple of possible new sites near Triangle Lake, Jerry was still sick, and no-one else had been interested in making the trip (based on the club’s e-mail list). Alone wasn’t that bad–at least I wouldn’t feel anti-social if I stuck to my own devices.

I had of course intended to work my way through the Leos (“Major” and Minor), but a look at my laminated Sky Atlas 2000.0 (Chart 6 tonight) showed that I still had a number of galaxies nearby in Lynx to ferret out. I should’ve let them go until next spring, but for whatever reason, I decided to catch them tonight. As I waited for the night to completely fall, I zeroed in on an object that was easy to find and bright enough to be visible in the twilight, watching it as more details became visible, until I felt the sky was dark enough to start taking adequate notes.


EAGLE’S RIDGE SPUR ROAD (43° 48′ 17.9496” N, 122° 42′ 45.6912” W)
MOON: 29 days; 1% illuminated, rose at 4:57 AM
SQM: not checked
NELM: 6.7
WEATHER CONDITIONS: temps in low 50s, no breeze, some dew on exposed plastic elements but none on optical surfaces or telescopes

Others present: none

All observations: 12.5 f/5 Discovery truss-tube Dobsonian, 14mm ES 82˚ eyepiece (112x, 0.7˚ TFOV) unless otherwise noted


NGC 2903 (Leo): It’s not quite fully dark yet. This stunning galaxy has always been a favorite, though—a huge, Messier-quality galaxy. It has a prominent core and a substellar nucleus (the core is not particularly large [0.75′?]), and shows a hint of a bar running almost N-S (maybe this is known from photos more than actually seen?). The galaxy spans 9′ x 3.75′. It’s hard to see if there is a visible wind direction to the arms. The galaxy has a very well-defined halo. There’s N-S brightening about 2/3 of the length of galaxy, and the occasional hint on the N slightly F edge of the halo as if a separate arm, like a dark obscuration between that and the core or a detached arm. There’s a slight notch on the NP side of the galaxy, about halfway between this “detached part” and the nucleus—is this a spiral arm wrapping from the F side of the nucleus around to the N where the detached portion is? To the F slightly S of the galaxy is a 14.5-magnitude star 3.5′ from the galaxy’s nucleus. 4.5′ N very slightly P the galaxy is a 14th-magnitude star.—7′ NP the nucleus is at least a 14th-mag star; it may be a double, with a secondary of threshold level SP primary by less than 1′. S of the galaxy from P to F is a chain of stars of which the SF star is brightest (at 12th magnitude), 6′ from the nucleus of the galaxy; P very slightly S by 2′ is a fainter (13th magnitude) star; from the 13th-magnitude star 3.75′ P very slightly S is a 12th-magnitude star; from that star, 4.5′ P and slightly N is a 12.5-magnitude star; F and slightly N of that star by 1.5′ is a 14th-magnitude star. N of the galaxy is a flat trapezoid of stars; 8.5′ N very slightly F the galaxy’s nucleus is the brightest star (10th magnitude) in the trapezoid; NP that star by 3.5′ is a 13th-magnitude star; due P that star by 3.5′ is a pair, the brightest of which is SP the fainter by 0.25′ and these are 11.5 and 14th magnitude; SP the 11.5-mgnitude star by 4.5′ is another 11.5-magnitude star. The brightest star in the field (8th magnitude) is 21′ N of the galaxy.

Still with time to catch the Lynx galaxies before they dipped too low into the Eugene light-dome, I headed over toward that region of Lynx by the feet of Ursa Major.

NGC 2493 (Lyn): This one’s a bummer, one of the most difficult Herschels so far (although, to be fair, Lynx is starting to dip into the light dome of Eugene in the northwest). It took a lot of searching to find—I struck out on 2415. The galaxy is a tiny, roundish spot, very very faint, perhaps 0.3′ round. It has a tiny halo and a miniscule core (almost a nucleus). The galaxy is part of a very elongated diamond of stars, the brightest star (8th-mag) of which is NF the galaxy by 7.5′; to the P slightly N and NP of the galaxy, each by 4.5′, are a 10th-magnitude star and a 10.5-magnitude star respectively. NP the galaxy by 1.5′ is a 14th-magnitude star. A pair of 13.5-mag stars are S very slightly F the galaxy by 3′, with the second 0.75′ P slightly S of the first; a 14th-magnitude star is S very slightly F the galaxy by 3.5′. The galaxy has enough presence to stop on rather than passing over, but not any more than that.

NGC 2541 (Lyn): Amazingly, this one is even worse than the previous. Is this really a Herschel II object? It’s as substantial as a gnat fart in a hurricane, almost an averted-only object. It’s a very diffuse tenuous glow, difficult to determine the size of and poorly-defined, with only the slightest bit of central concentration. Elongation is N-S, 2.5′ x 1.5′. The galaxy sits just S of a pair of three-star arcs; one arc starts NP of the galaxy and dips S-ward, while the other starts NF and dips SP-ward. The galaxy is halfway between the S-most star (10th magnitude) in the first arc and an 11.5-magnitude star SP the galaxy. These stars are 8′ apart. F the galaxy by 6′ is a grouping of five 14th-mag and fainter stars in a zig-zag that starts NF the galaxy, moves toward the SP, back to the SF and then back to the SP; this zig-zag is 5′ from tip to tail. There’s also a 10.5-magnitude star 8′ S slightly F the galaxy. The brightest star in the field is a 9th-magnitude star 17′ SF the galaxy.

NGC 2500 (Lyn): This one is another relative disappointment, down toward the light dome of Eugene. It’s round, 2.25′ diameter, and very diffuse, with no central brightening and a poorly-defined halo. The galaxy is in the middle of a scattering of 12.5-magnitude and fainter stars with no real shape. There’s an 11.5-magnitude star just on the SP edge of the halo, and a threshold star just on the F side of halo. 2′ to the N is a 12.5-magnitude star. 2′ SF the star on the SP edge of halo is a 12.5-mag star. The brightest star in the field (9th-magnitude) is SP the galaxy by 14′.

NGC 2782 (Lyn): Not particularly impressive, but better than the last few. This one is smaller and brighter than previous two and roundish, 1.25′ diameter. It has a diffuse, poorly-defined halo, a brighter core, and a hint of a stellar nucleus. NF the galaxy by 8.5′ is a 10th-magnitude star. 4.5′ NP the galaxy is a very difficult double, hard to hold separate; separation is about 10″ but the faintness of the secondary is the main factor in its difficulty; the primary is P the secondary; components are 13th– and threshold magnitudes. A threshold star is 2.5′ due P the galaxy. Due S of the galaxy is the first of a pair of roughly equal (12.5-mag) stars; one star is 2.75′ due S of the galaxy and the other 1.5′ SF the first. 17′ SP the galaxy is a 9.5-magnitude star.

By this point, Lynx was becoming untenable to work in due to the light pollution. I sort-of let Sky Safari choose my next group of targets based on setting time, heading onward to my originally-intended hunting ground, Leo and Leo Minor.

It’s important to note, too, that even a dim and seemingly-featureless galaxy is an object worthy of contemplation and observation. I might call one “unimpressive” or “disappointing,” but it’s still an entire galaxy, and I still feel a touch of awe when I see it, out of respect for its true nature and the inconceivable distance between the observer and the observed.

NGC 3162 (Leo): Diffuse and difficult. Located near Adhafera [Zeta Leo]. This galaxy is irregularly bright in its inner regions. It’s roundish, 1.25′ in diameter. It has a faint core that’s poorly defined against the halo, which is pretty well defined despite its diffuseness. There’s a just-above-threshold magnitude star on the F slightly S edge of the halo. The galaxy forms one of the bottom corners of a Japanese torii pattern, the top of which arcs from NP to slightly S to NF the galaxy; one column of the torii runs NP and SP of the galaxy; N of the galaxy is the top of other “column”; the two stars at the edges of the arc are the brightest in the pattern; 10′ NP the galaxy is an 8.5-magnitude star; there’s a 10th-magnitude star 9.5′ NF the galaxy; the stars in the column P the galaxy are NP the galaxy by 5′ and 3.5′ P slightly S of the galaxy; N slightly F the galaxy by 3.5′ is the top of the other “column.” Due F the galaxy by 4.5′ is a 14th-magnitude star.

NGCs 3226, 3227 (Leo): An excellent pair! These are obviously interacting spirals [3226 is actually an elliptical]. 3226 is N very slightly P 3227, and much the smaller of the pair. There maybe a bit of N-S elongation, perhaps 1.25′ x 1.0′. 3226 has a diffuse but well-defined halo (is a halo ever not diffuse?) and a largish core. Every few moments is a flicker of a substellar nucleus, which is 2.5′ from the nucleus of 3227. 3227 is SF 3226, and is much the larger of the two at 2.25′ x 1.25′, elongated NP-SF. It’s not sure if there’s dark space between the two galaxies’ haloes. The galaxy has an obvious stellar nucleus and a brighter core that’s not as distinctive as 3226’s. Due P the nucleus by 4.5′ is a 13.5-magnitude star. 6′ NP the center of 3226 is a 13th-magnitude star; N of that star by 1.5′ is a 14th-magnitude star. An interesting small triangle of stars is SP the galaxies; the closest vertex to the galaxies is an 11th-magnitude star 7′ SP the nucleus of 3227; P very slightly N of that star by 1′ is a 12th-magnitude star. Back to the 13th-magnitude star: S and very slightly F that star by 3.5′ is the brightest star (10th magnitude) in that triangle. The brightest star in the field is 18′ SF the nucleus of 3227 and is 9th magnitude.

NGCs 3185, 3187, 3190, 3193 (Hickson 44; Leo): Perhaps the best of all the Hickson groups, although 3187 more difficult tonight than I’ve seen it in the past—the light glow in the northwest is getting harder to avoid. 3185 is a diffuse glow, slightly elongated P-F (1.5′ x 0.75′). It has a little central brightening, a hint of a stellar nucleus, and a poorly-defined halo. It’s surprisingly quite difficult tonight. 10.5 N slightly F is 3190, the brightest/most obvious of the four. It’s elongated P-F (2.0′ x 1.0′), with a bright core and bright substellar nucleus, and a better defined halo than 3185. A threshold star is SP galaxy by 1.5′; N very slightly F by 3.25′ is a 12th-magnitude star. Due P 3190 by 5′ is 3187: really tough tonight, a threshold-level, P-F elongated glow, but its extent is hard to determine (it’s obviously smaller than 3190). 3187 appears to have a threshold-level star just SF it. 8.5′ N of 3190 is the second-brightest star in field at 8th magnitude. P and slightly N of 3190 by 17′ is a 7th-magnitude star, the brightest in the field. NF 3190 by 5.5′ is 3193, which is smaller than 3190 but almost as bright. It’s about 1.5′ across and roundish, with a large substantially-bright core and substellar nucleus; the core makes up about 75% of the galaxy’s diameter. The halo is small and well defined. 1′ due N is a 10th-magnitude star. F slightly N of the galaxy by 4′ is an 11th-magnitude star. NF galaxy by 7′ is a very faint pair of stars, separated NP-SF by 0.5′; these are of 14.5- and 15th-magnitudes.

NGC 3301 (Leo): This is an elongated spiral, but not the easiest edge-on I’ve seen. It does have a well-defined brightish core and a stellar nucleus. The galaxy is elongated SP-NF at 2.5′ x 0.75′. The ends of the halo are not well-defined; they kind-of evaporate into the background. Due N of the galaxy is a smallish right triangle of stars, with the short edge almost parallel to the galaxy; the short edge is 1.75′, the long edge 3.25′; the right-angle vertex is 3′ N of the galaxy and is the closest of the triangle’s stars to the galaxy; the opposite vertex on the long edge is the brightest in the triangle at 11th magnitude; the right angle vertex is 11.5 magnitude; the third vertex is 12.5 magnitude. 6′ SF galaxy is a 13th-magnitude star. On opposite sides of the field (S slightly P and NF the galaxy) each by 18′ are 10th-magnitude stars. An interesting double star is 20′ N slightly P the galaxy, with the 13th-magnitude primary component 0.5′ NP the 13.5-magnitude secondary.

NGC 3294 (LMi): Big and diffuse, with very little central brightening. The galaxy is quite obvious despite having almost no definition at all. It’s 3.0′ x 1.25′, elongated NP-SF. The galaxy seems wider on the NP end than on the SF end (?). There are 10th-magnitude stars NP and NF the galaxy; the star to the NP is 8′ from the center of the galaxy; the star to the NF is 5.5′ from the center of the galaxy. 12′ SF the center of the galaxy is an 8th-magnitude star . There may be a threshold star P the galaxy by 2.5′. 5′ from the SP edge of the galaxy is a 12.5-magnitude star.

I had to abandon the Lions at this point; Hickson 44 had been something of an indicator that Leo itself was already too close to the light-dome of Eugene. For all my intentions of doing a massive and thorough sweep through the Greater Lion, I’d gotten only a few of the dozens of Leo Herschels I needed. I ended up heading east and north for my last few galaxies of the night.

NGC 4203 (Com): had to move into Coma as Leo is in poor position. This is a very interesting field. The galaxy itself is 1.5′ round, with a small bright core, a brightish stellar nucleus, and a well-defined halo—probably an elliptical? 3.75′ N slightly P the galaxy is an 8th-magnitude star. 2′ N of the galaxy is a 12.5-magnitude star. The brightest star in the field is on the SF edge of the field (20′ SF the galaxy) and is 5th magnitude. NP the galaxy is an arc of three stars 21′ from the galaxy. From S-NF: 8th magnitude, 10th magnitude, 11th magnitude; these are spaced about 4.25′ apart; the S-most is 17′ NP the galaxy. S of the galaxy by 21′ is an 8.5-magnitude star. SP the galaxy by 28′ is a beautiful double star [ADS 8470]: yellow primary and blue secondary, separated by 0.5′, with the primary P the secondary.

NGC 4395 (CVn): Another one of the most difficult in the Herschel catalogue (again). Huge!. This one is barely visible, tougher than (but similar to) NGC 4236 in Draco, and averted vision gives only slight benefit. Just a big round glow, 7′ across minimum [satellite through field]. It has the slightest hint of central brightening that runs NP-SF (rocking the scope helps reveal this elongation); the central region is 5′ x 7′ and looks “lumpy”, with a few threshold stars sprinkled across it?. One threshold star is on the F side 2/3 of the way from center to edge; there may be another threshold star SF in halo and one more threshold star on the NP side. There seems to be something small and nebulous on SF side? Distinctly non-stellar [NGC 4401?]. The galaxy is bracketed on the P and F sides by brightish stars: on P side, 12′ from the middle of the galaxy, is a 9th-magnitude star; there’s an 11th-magnitude star on the F slightly N side by 12′. 7′ S of the center of the galaxy is a 13th-magnitude star. I need to reexamine this one with the 18″ scope!

NGC 4051 (UMa): A really interesting one! This galaxy seems to show spiral structure. The halo is very large and is elongated P-F, while the brighter inner structure seems elongated NP-SF. The galaxy has a distinctive stellar nucleus and a small not very bright core region; this core region looks more a bar that runs NP-SF. The galaxy spans 4.0′ x 2.5′. This coulda been a Messier! A faint spiral arm appears to be reaching toward an 11th-mag star just off the P edge of the halo; the NF edge of the halo is less distinct than the rest, and there appears to be a notch in SP edge of halo. 4.25′ NF the galaxy’s nucleus is a 15th-magnitude star, and there is a 14.5-mag star 7′ F the galaxy’s nucleus. F slightly S of the galaxy by 12′ is an 8.5-magnitude star. 19′ P slightly N of the galaxy is an 8.5-magnitude star, and a 10th-mag star is NF the galaxy by 20′. This is a great galaxy, and I need to return to it!

NGC 4143 (CVn): A brightish, elongated galaxy, elongated 2.25′ x 0.75′ NP-SF. [There’s a very slow-moving satellite in the field]. The galaxy has an obvious bright core, although there’s something embedded in the NP end, or what looks like a double core. There’s also a visible substellar nucleus. The halo is well defined. 3.5′ N of the galaxy is a 14.5-magnitude star. A 9th-magnitude star lies SP the galaxy by 5′. P the galaxy by 6.5′ is a 13th-magnitude star; SF the galaxy by 4.5′ is a 13.5-magnitude star. Even further SF the galaxy is a small diamond-gemstone asterism; the SF-most star is the bottom of the diamond, and is 9th-magnitude, 14′ from the galaxy; the three stars in the top of the diamond are all 11th-/11.5-magnitude.

NGC 4138 (CVn): , An interesting inclined spiral, not far from 4143. This has a diffuse, not particularly well-defined halo and a bright core, but no visible nucleus. The galaxy is elongated 1.75′ x 1.0′ NP-SF. N slightly P the galaxy by 2′ is a 12th-magnitude star; NP that star by 4.5′ is another 12th-magnitude star; 5′ NF that second star is another 12th-magnitude star; these three form a triangle. 13′ F and slightly N of the galaxy is a 10th-magnitude star, while NP the galaxy by 18′ is a very impressive double: separated P-F by 0.25′ (secondary P the primary); the white 8th-magnitude primary is much brighter than the slightly blue 11th-magnitude secondary.

So that was that. With dawn soon to encroach and an hour’s drive ahead, I effectively conceded my attempt to finish the Herschel 44 and Herschel II this calendar year. I might be able to work through the earlier spring galaxies in the mornings of late fall and winter, but those seasons bring far fewer clear nights in which to “work.” I could also take much less detailed notes on the remaining objects and do more of them per night, but that’s far less satisfying and would feel like cheating.

So I packed up and headed home. When next I would get out to observe, Virgo too would be well past the meridian. Having cleared out the Herschels from the region in the best viewing position (Boötes/Serpens/Hercules/Draco), I could either choose to work on the galaxies of Ursa Major (which would still be in good position to observe) or I could begin making headway on the nebulae and clusters of the summer Milky Way—as I write this, I’m leaning toward the idea of the latter. Whichever happens, though, it’ll still be a worthwhile endeavor and a way to learn more about the universe.




The majority of the winter rains seem to be behind us here in the Willamette Valley; this winter was quite an improvement over the last several as far as astronomy goes,  and hopefully the spring and summer are as good as usual clear-night-wise. Although my work shifts have been getting canceled at an alarming rate, I couldn’t complain about a good forecast on the Clear Sky Chart for a Sunday in March. A good number of my fellow EAS members felt the same way, so plans were made to convene at Eureka Ridge—-due to its better southern horizon—-for a potentially long session with the stars.

Throughout the day, the constant stream of cirrus clouds overhead seemed intent on making a liar out of the CSC. I ducked off for a nap at 3 PM, expecting the cirrus to disappear before load-up time, and was relieved to find that this was mostly the case when I awoke. The transparency was still not ideal, but it would suffice. I could simply observe objects higher in the sky, where the transparency would be at its best—-about a 5 on the 10 scale, in my estimation, based entirely on the color of the daylight sky.

Someone rearranged the potholes on the BLM road to Eureka Ridge since we’d last been there, as the gravel road was a minefield. I’d expected some potholes and a lot of tree debris, but there was no debris of note on the road, and the potholes were more numerous than ever. I passed a large vehicle that was stopped off the roadside about halfway up, and it ended up following me the rest of the way as I picked my driving spots between the potholes at 5 MPH.

Only two types of people would be on the BLM road in the evening: sovcit types with full arsenals, and astronomers. I passed a pair of the former as I pulled onto Eureka Ridge proper; they stood beside their truck with impressive rifles out, aiming down into the bowl of which Eureka is the north ridge. Astronomers outnumbered them, however, as there were eight of us there by sunset. (Of the eight, I knew only Jerry, Kathy, and Frank, although I recognized most of the others from EAS meetings.) Every thirty seconds or so, a shot would ring out, and we would either hear a metallic clank (if they hit their target) or silence. I joked that the clank was just a sound effect intended to impress us with the shooters’ accuracy, and that they were really just shooting into the air.

The skies at Eureka aren’t as dark as those at Eagle’s Ridge; there’s about a half-magnitude difference between the sites. Eureka has the advantage of a flat southern horizon (although the light dome of Roseburg, 60 miles south, is quite prominent) and better east and west horizons that at Eagle’s Ridge. The disadvantages to Eureka, aside from the not-as-dark skies, are that it’s often windier than the “Eagle’s sites” and that dew is often a major issue. On this night, the wind wasn’t a problem, which may have made the dew even worse. By the time Bob the Dob was collimated and ready for action, it was already damp with condensation.

I intended to pick up where I left off last time, digging out the remaining Herschels in Lepus and continuing north and east. The transparency was pretty poor that close to the horizon, but the lack of mountains made it much easier to “get low” declination-wise, and I ended up sitting on the ground a lot to observe. This had been a never-ending source of amusement when I was with AASI, the members of which thought it strange that with the whole sky to work in, I would insist on observing as low in the south as I could manage. Here in EAS, though, no one gave it a second thought. In any case, the seven degrees of latitude difference between Carbondale and the Eugene area meant that several of my Herschel targets were low enough to require observing from the ground—-even some of the Messier objects were horizon-huggers from 44˚ North.

The observations that follow are compromised by the low altitude and declination of the objects I ended up observing. I noticed as I was transcribing these that the star magnitudes and galaxy sizes I had indicated are considerably off; the poor transparency of the southern sky dimmed field stars and washed out faint galactic haloes to the point of invisibility. I was working on objects as near to the meridian as possible, which is good operating procedure in any case, but many of these objects simply weren’t going to be able to successfully fight the gunk in the sky’s lower third. Should I have stuck to objects at higher altitude/declination? Possibly. But many of these targets would be more difficult at Eagle’s Ridge and impossible at Eagle’s Rest due to obstruction along the horizon, so they’d need to be observed at Eureka anyway. So I plowed ahead, knowing as I did so that these notes would be less accurate than they would be in better conditions.



MOON: 25 days (21% illumination); rose at 4:57 AM
TRANSPARENCY: 5; 4 below 30˚ altitude
SQM: 21.3
NELM: not checked
WEATHER CONDITIONS: temps falling to mid 40s; some breeze below ridge level, high humidity/ground fog

Others present: JO, KO, FS, JL, JP, Bob M, MD

NGC 1964 (Lep): still not totally dark—galaxy dimmer than when I saw it in Illinois—elongated S slightly P-N slightly F—1.5′ x 0.67’—has a bright core and bright stellar nucleus—halo fairly diffuse—may be a threshold star just on P edge of halo—ends of halo very difficult, not defined—P very slightly N of galaxy by 2′ is a 10.5-mag star; N very slightly P that star by 2.5′ is a 10th-mag star; P slightly S of that star by 0.5′ is a 12th-mag star—SP the galaxy by 5′ is an 11th-mag star

At this point (or thereabouts), one of the observers made note of the zodiacal light in the northwest. Caused by sunlight scattering off of dust in the ecliptic plane of the solar system—-and therefore along the Zodiac—-the zodiacal light requires very dark skies to be seen. It’s a faint triangular glow that stretches from the horizon southeast along the constellations of the Zodiac. (It actually covers the whole sky, but is usually too dim, even from a dark site, to be seen aside from its brightest portion.) On this night, the Zodiacal light reached beyond the Pleiades, a faint triangular mist that served as an extra reminder of how fortunate I was to have skies so free from the artificial glow of humanity.

NGC 2139 (Lep): already missed 1162—galaxy is kind-of impressive—face-on spiral based on brightness profile—quite diffuse—slightly brighter core—threshold stars around galaxy? Hard to tell if nucleus present—somewhat elongated mostly P-F—1.25′ x 0.87’—brighter central region is 2/3 of length of galaxy—bracketed on S by a 10th-mag star 4′ from galaxy and by a 12th-mag star N very slightly P galaxy by 5’—3.5′ N very slightly P galaxy (in a line between galaxy and 12th-mag star) is a 13.5-mag star—N of galaxy by 5.25′ is a 13th-mag star (three stars make a small triangle)—N of galaxy by 1.5′ is a 14.5-mag star—back to 11th-mag star S of galaxy: a 14th-mag star S of that star by 1.25’—S of galaxy by 15′ is a 9th-mag star; another 9th-mag star P slightly S previous star by 6′, two brightest stars in field

NGC 2196 (Lep): on Lep-CMa border, way low in sky—pretty round—diffuse halo, brighter core (redundant tonight)—substellar nucleus is pretty obvious—1.0′ round—another face-on?–in middle of diamond of 10.5-11th-mag stars; closest star is 10.5-mag, NF galaxy by 9′; clockwise in eyepiece: faintest star of four (11.5-mag) NP galaxy by 11′; NP that star by 3.5′ and 4.5′ are 12.5- and 13th-mag stars; back to galaxy: 11th-mag star P very slightly S by 9.5′; brightest in diamond is S very slightly F galaxy by 13’—14th-mag star S very slightly F galaxy by 2.5’—another 14th-mag star P very slightly N of galaxy by 2.25′; another group of stars extends N and arcs S from that previous star and ends at star on P corner of diamond—N slightly P galaxy by 21′ is an 8th-mag star—NF galaxy by 19′ is a 9th-mag star

NGC 2781 (Hya): not at all impressive—reasonably bright—small, well-defined—0.67′ x 0.25’—conditions pretty poor down here—small brighter core, stellar nucleus—elongated P-F? hard to tell—S very slightly P by 8′ is a 9th-mag star—SF by 3.5′ is the dimmer of a N-S pair separated by 0.5′; stars are 13th– and 13.5-mags—N of galaxy by 2.25′ is a 13.5-mag star—P and slightly S of galaxy by 16′ is a 9.2-mag star

NGCs 2889, 2884 (Hya): diffuse but pretty obvious glow—reasonably large—roundish—1.5’—somewhat brighter core, but no visible nucleus—halo pretty well defined—S by 1.5′ from center is a 12.5-mag star—SP by 3′ is an 11th-mag star—F very slightly N by 12′ is a 10th-mag star—P and somewhat N by 16′ is an 11th-mag star; NF that star by 8′ (NP 2889 by 13′) is another galaxy (2884): smaller than 2889—edge-on—1.0′ x 0.25’—elongated N-S—hint of brighter central region but not well-defined in core or halo—NF by 5′ is a pair separated by 0.3′; the more S (and very slightly F) of pair is brighter; 13.5- and 14th-mags

NGC 2765 (Hya): continuing streak of unimpressive Hydra galaxies—small, reasonably well-defined galaxy—0.67′ x 0.25’—small brighter core—in averted there may be a flicker of a nucleus—not particularly bright but fairly obvious—elongated mostly P-F—F and somewhat S by 8′ is a 11th-mag star—S very slightly F galaxy by 8′ is a 12th-mag star; just N of that star by 0.75′ is a 14.5-mag star—S very slightly P galaxy by 5.5′ is a 14th-mag star—N very slightly F galaxy by 5′ is a 13.5-mag star

NGC 3078 (Hya): down as low as chair can go—galaxy is barely elongated N-S—0.67′ x 0.5’—brightish core but no nucleus seen—pretty well-defined halo—in middle of N-S elongated cross pattern—SF by 11′ is the brightest star in pattern (11.5-mag) that also serves as F-most vertex of tiny triangle; P that star by 1.5′ is a 13.5-mag star; from 13.5-mag star SF by 1′ is a 14.5-mag star—NP galaxy by 4.25′ is a 14.5-mag star—another 13.5-mag star N very slightly F of galaxy by 3.5’—SP galaxy by 5.5′ is a 12th-mag star which has a 13.5-mag star 0.75′ N

NGC 3109 is not a Herschel object, but is noteworthy for another reason: it’s the “fourth spiral” in the Local Group, that small association of nearby galaxies that makes up our cosmic neighborhood. There have been decades of arguments over 3109’s membership in the Local Group, but more-recent data appear to support its inclusion. So it joins the Milky Way, M31, and M33 as a major member galaxy on our block.

My notes on it give evidence of the difficulties of observing on this particular night. I considerably overestimated the size of NGC 3109, due to its diffuseness; it was hard to tell where the galaxy ended and the hazy, grey background sky began. Transparency, eyepiece fogging, low declination, and the light pollution of the southern horizon combined to make this extremely-dim galaxy a very difficult catch, more so than it would be if it was ten degrees higher.

NGC 3109 (Hya): poor conditions for this galaxy—huge, extremely-diffuse glow—18′ x 3.5’—elongated P-F—couple of brighter patches along length—several embedded stars including a 12th-mag star on F end—just on edge of one of brighter patches on P end of galaxy is a 13th-mag star—along S edge of galaxy, running SP-NF is an arc of 12th– and 13th-mag stars that terminates on P end with an 11.5-mag star—fainter than 4236 in Draco—not much definition—need to revisit under much better conditions

NGC 2986, PGC 27873 (Hya)–2986: better than many of the previous—probably an elliptical—0.75′ round—much more obvious core [airplane through field!]—maybe a flicker of a stellar nucleus—2′ from P edge of galaxy is either a threshold star or another galaxy, probably a galaxy (PGC 27873)—looks a bit extended or diffuse—very tiny, hard to tell orientation—to F and SF of 2986 is a zig-zag of four stars, brightest of which is second from N end and dimmest at S end; stars all between 10.5- and 12.5-mags—P and slightly S of galaxy by 10′ is a 12th-mag star—NP galaxy by 10.5′ is a double star; brighter component NF the dimmer by 0.75′; very unequal; brighter component (9.5-mag) is brightest star in field; dimmer component is 13th-mag; P and somewhat N that double by 18′ is another double of very unequal (10th– and 13th-mags) components; 10″ separation; brighter SF the dimmer

NGC 2784 (Hya): on Hydra-Antlia border—better galaxy than most tonight—bright, fairly small—elongated P very slightly S-F very slightly N—well-defined—unmistakable substellar nucleus and bright core—1.25′ x 0.5’—very obvious in field—in long triangle of 10th/11th-mag stars; brightest (10.25-mag) is NP galaxy by 6.5′; closest vertex is F slightly S galaxy by 3.5′, 10.5-mag; third vertex due S of galaxy by 5.5′, 11th-mag—N of galaxy is a small Cepheus-shaped asterism comprised mostly of 12th/13th-mag stars—rich field of stars

NGCs 3511, 3513 (Crt): 3511: very large thin galaxy—quite diffuse—elongated P very slightly S-F very slightly N—4.0′ x 0.67’—mottled along length—a bit of central brightening but more generally mottled—on F end of halo is a 13th-mag star—no visible nucleus—threshold star on P end—like 2613?—almost halfway between the two galaxies and a little bit P that point is an 11.5-mag star flanked on NF and due P by 12.5-mag stars; star to due P is 2′ and star NF is 3.5′ from 11.5-mag star—P slightly N of galaxy by 11′ is a 10th-mag star—bright zig-zag of 10th– to 13th-mag stars N and NF galaxy by 13-15’—NF galaxy by 24′ is a 9th-mag star—S slightly F 3511 by 11′ is 3513: very large, equally diffuse, roundish glow—maybe a slight bit of NP-SF elongation—2′ x 1.75’—some slight central brightening that’s not much brighter than halo—central region about half galaxy’s diameter—just off F edge of halo is a 14th-mag star—from SP side of galaxy by 4.5′ from nucleus is a 12th-mag star—from S very slightly P side of galaxy by 4.5′ is another 12th-mag star—S slightly F galaxy by 3′ is a 13.5-mag star; 13.5-mag star 4′ S that star

NGC 3585 (Hya): another bright, smallish galaxy—well-defined—elongated P very slightly N-F very slightly S—1.25′ x 0.5’—forms a nearly-equilateral triangle with two 9th-mag stars to F and SF by 8.5’—[very slow satellite across middle of galaxy]—S by 8′ is a 12th-mag star—due N of galaxy by 12.5′ is an 11.5-mag star; due N of that star by 5′ is an 8th-mag star—P and slightly N of the galaxy by 9′ is a 12th-mag star; P and slightly S that star by 10.5′ is an 8th-mag star

Somewhere during the course of the night, I had to start using the hair dryer I’d borrowed (last year!) from Randy B–a portable 12-volt dryer made for camping, and perfect for defogging a dewy eyepiece.  I ended up kicking myself while using it; I have a dew-prevention system with a heater band for eyepieces, and never thought to bring it. I managed to repeatedly remind myself to bring the dryer, but bringing the Kendrick heater never occurred to me. Ugh.

The number of astronomers on the Eureka road was dwindling quickly; Frank and Bob had left earlier, shortly followed by Mike and Jeff P, and now Jerry and Kathy were heading home (having had a busy week). So Jeff L and I were left to work on our own projects: Jeff was working through as many Messiers as he could get to, given the fog-slash-humidity causing so many issues. Given the poor conditions so low in the sky, I should’ve made my way up into Leo and Leo Minor as I had long been planning. But the southern horizon at Eureka made it tempting to stay farther down in declination, and I ended up doing several more observations sitting on the gravel of the ridge road.

NGC 3621 (Hya): huge, mottled, and impressive!—elongated N very slightly P-S very slightly F—inside a diamond of stars whose major axis is oriented NP-SF—galaxy very irregularly bright and mottled—a little brighter on N end in interior—fairly diffuse halo but better-defined large core—edges of halo poorly defined—7.5′ x 3.5’—Messier-sized!—seeing really poor now, and eyepiece fogging up again—interior region/core about 60% of diameter—NP end of diamond is a small triangle, star on SF end is second-brightest in diamond at 11.5-mag; star on S slightly P end of diamond just a shade brighter than star on SF end; star on NF end is 13.5-mag; star on NP end is 13th-mag and has two 15th-mag stars SF and F slightly S from it, 0.5′ from 13th-mag star—S of galaxy by 9′ from galaxy’s center is an 11.5-mag star—NF galaxy by 16′ is an 11th-mag star—another 11th-mag star NP galaxy by 15’—very rewarding galaxy!

NGCs 4105, 4106 (Hya): obviously interacting—nice pair!—4105: elongated slightly NP-SF—4105 larger and slightly brighter of pair—obvious core—substellar nucleus—0.75′ x 0.5′ –S by 2.75′ is a 13th-mag star—an 11.5-mag star P very slightly N by 7’—21′ SP is a 10.5-mag star—4106: elongated SP-NF—0.67′ x 0.5’—halo more diffuse—smaller, less-defined core—1.0′ between centers of two galaxies—4105 is P very slightly N of 4106—NF 4106 by 14′ is an 11th-mag star—just off S end of field (26′) is a 10th-mag star

My usual method of finding an object involves locating it on a paper chart (either Sky Atlas 2000.0, the Interstellarum Deep-Sky Atlas, or the Pocket Sky Atlas, but usually the first), determining my guide stars, and then using the TriAtlas app on my phone once I’d gotten close. Unlike most of my fellow astronomy nuts, I find planetarium apps like Sky Safari to be unwieldy for selecting guide stars, even with its adjustable scale. But using a paper atlas usually involves getting up and going over to my gear table, which most often is next to my van. This isn’t actually a problem, as it forces me to get up and move every few minutes, keeping circulation going.

Getting up this time, though, I noticed that the fog —-formerly creeping up the floor of Eureka’s bowl—-was now glowing white along the road a hundred feet ahead of my van, like the vampire cloud from the original Star Trek. It was more than a little bit eerie to watch the fog encroach, gleaming white amid the darkness of the night.

NGC 3145 (Hya): near Lambda Hya, which makes observing the galaxy difficult—elongated S very slightly P-N very slightly F—1.5′ x 0.5’—if Lambda wasn’t here this would be a fine galaxy—brightish core and substellar nucleus—Lambda Hya is NF galaxy by 8’—a 12th-mag star SP galaxy by 3.5’—NP galaxy by 4′ is a 14.5-mag star—with galaxy centered, just outside edge of field due S of galaxy is a 7th-mag star—N of galaxy by 21′ is another 7th-mag star

NGC 3732 (Crt): small and less-impressive than last few—0.5′ round—small brighter core—no visible nucleus—pretty well-defined halo—SP galaxy by 1′ is a 13.5-mag star—galaxy has line of stars P and N of it; lines meet at a 14th-mag star 6′ S very slightly F galaxy—a 13.5-mag star N of galaxy by 3’—also N of galaxy by 8.5′ is a faint pair oriented N-S with brighter to N, mags 13 and 14.5, separated by 12″—NP the galaxy by 6′ is a 12th-mag star

NGC 3892 (Crt): fairly small—pretty well-defined—has a slightly-brighter core but no real visible nucleus—elongated P-F—0.75′ x 0.3’—P galaxy by 15′ is a 10th-mag star; a southward-curving arc of five 13th-mag stars loops S from the 10th-mag star back N to the galaxy—NP galaxy by 15′ is an 11th-mag star—P very slightly N of galaxy by 2′ is a 14th-mag star—SP the galaxy by 0.75′ is a 15th-mag star—NF galaxy by 5.5′ is a 12th-mag star—N slightly F by 16′ is another 12th-mag star

NGC 3962 (Crt): elliptical?—roundish—0.67′ round—bright core and well-defined halo, trace of a substellar nucleus—N of a pair of 12th-mag stars, one to S very slightly P by 2.5′ and the other S slightly F by 3.25’—NF galaxy by 16′ is an 11th-mag star—N slightly F by 8′ is a 13th-mag star—P slightly S of the galaxy by 7′ is a 12th-mag star

By now, I was hitting the hair dryer between every object, and had caught a few stray hairs in the motor more than once. I knew that my observations weren’t as good as they should’ve been, considering the crud in the sky and—as I discovered—the fact that the secondary mirror’s dew-heater had surrendered to the overwhelming presence of the dew. As I was tearing the scope down, I noticed that the secondary had a ring of condensation around its edge, contributing to the more-feeble appearance of many of the observed galaxies (which I knew should’ve been brighter than they were).

Jeff and I talked for a bit; I hated to leave a clear sky even if my scope was already packed up. He planned to stay as long as possible (although he would later tell me that his secondary had completely fogged-over within an hour of my leaving). I wan’t as keen to leave a lone observer at Eureka after having seen a bear there last year, but Jeff wasn’t put off by bears; he lived down near Eagle’s Rest, and was accustomed to wildlife wandering through.

So I left while there were still stars visible and Herschel objects waiting to be plundered. It was a better evening quantity-wise than quality-wise, but that was the way things went sometimes.

South in Winter

Why am I doing this?

I’ve often asked myself this question regarding astronomy—not in an exasperated sense, but in an attempt to understand what about astronomy compels me to load up a vehicle with heavy-ish equipment and drive away from “civilization,” spending many (frequently uncomfortable) nighttime hours in pursuing faint smudges of light before tearing the heavy gear down and making a tired drive home.

It’s a question I still can’t really answer.

I have, by my count, made 468 field recordings—dictations at the eyepiece—of 548 objects, totaling more than 43 hours of notetaking time. This represents the smallest fraction of the actual observing I’ve done—it doesn’t include the years I spent learning the sky from my backyard in Cincinnati, the years I spent there hunting the Messier objects and the brighter NGCs of summer, the years in Findlay Ohio, Eagle River Alaska, and Carbondale Illinois where I would observe faithfully but not take notes on what I’d seen, the thousands of hours I’ve spent working with the public to show them the sights I’ve seen and answering questions about the universe, the reobservations of favorite objects and looks through other observers’ telescopes; it doesn’t reflect the time and money spent acquiring an enviable collection of telescopes, eyepieces, books, and other paraphernalia. While other interests and diversions waxed and waned, astronomy has been the one constant in my life since I was 12, and was a notable element even in my younger years.

And yet, when asked what I find so compelling about seeing into the universe, I can’t muster up a good explanation. I’m sure part of the answer is the esoteric nature of what we do—tracking down obscure distant objects in forgotten corners of the sky. Obscure things have always intrigued me; it’s why I chose an esoteric theme involving hundreds of little-known languages for my M.A. thesis in linguistics. Part of astronomy’s appeal is also (no pun intended) universal—almost everyone has some interest in gorgeous pictures of deep-space objects and/or the patterns of the constellations and the dance of the planets and Moon among them. And part of it is almost certainly a spiritual/metaphysical yearning to make connection to the greater universe of which we’re an infinitesimal part. But these don’t add up to a concise answer for why I’m willing to spend cold hours on a mountain ridge alone, trying to eke out details in a tiny image of a distant galaxy so dim that it’s barely visible as anything more than a sliver of brightening against the background sky.

Why am I doing this?

The question—and how to answer it in a blog post—helped keep me awake on the drive home from my latest excursion down to Eagle’s Ridge. It had been a somewhat challenging session, with temperatures below freezing, gusty winds that sprang up early after twilight faded, and the isolation of observing alone… all on a mere four nights’ sleep the night before. But it was a productive session nonetheless, with observations of twelve more Herschel galaxies and several non-Herschel targets, including both a personal bete-noire and an object that allowed me to add to a quirky list of my own making.

Unable to cajole anyone else in EAS to come out observing on a cold Monday night, and Jerry and Kathy being in Hawaii, I went out to the site alone. (Bill Basham would later tell me that he had thought about driving out, but decided to stay closer to home.) My plan was to attempt the road to Eagle’s Ridge—I needed the better southern horizon on the ridge than what the gravel pit (our secondary site nearby) could provide—and fall back to the gravel site if the road to the ridge was too snowy. Fortunately, the ridge road had only a dusting of snow on it, and there were snow-free tire tracks all the way up. I made it just after sunset, with the sky still bright enough to set up. Rather than waiting by the scope as darkness fell, and with no-one else to talk to, I got back into the van until it was acceptably dark to begin Herschel hunting.

I had brought with me some extra gear. Expecting frost, I had brought my Celestron Powertank and Randy Beiderwell’s portable hair dryer, for the sake of defrosting fogged-over eyepieces if need be. And I also brought my iPad, which had tonight’s potential target list plugged into Sky Safari. To protect the iPad from the cold, I put it in a thermal bag designed for transporting hot food, and then chucked a quartet of chemical handwarmers into the bag with it. This worked reasonably well for a while. Having the iPad also allowed me some background noise to keep away any foraging critters (bears, Smilodon, etc.), or at least alert them to my presence. I ended up listening to the Nerdist’s interview with Saoirse Ronan on a loop, so as to not have to keep fiddling with the iPad unnecessarily.

EAGLE’S RIDGE SPUR ROAD (43° 48′ 17.9496” N, 122° 42′ 45.6912” W)
MOON: 28 days; 4% illuminated, rose at 6:01 AM
SQM: not checked
NELM: 6.6
WEATHER CONDITIONS: temps in low 30s/high 20s, considerable breeze starting from 8:30; frost on exposed gear by 7:30

Others present: none

All observations: 12.5 f/5 Discovery truss-tube Dobsonian, 14mm ES 82˚ eyepiece (112x, 0.7˚ TFOV) unless otherwise noted

NGC 1187 (Eri)—not fully dark yet—big, diffuse, not particularly easy glow—forms a squashed pentagon with four stars—very poorly defined—has a measure of central brightening but no visible nucleus—brighter core region—inclined spiral?—elongated NP-SF—3.5′ x 2.5’—poorly defined so hard to tell where halo ends—inner region is about 1.0′ x 0.67′ and comes gradually to halo—4.5′ NP from center of galaxy is a 9th-mag star; S slightly P that star by 4′ is a 12th-mag star; S of that star by 5′ is an 11th-mag star; an 11.5-mag star F and very slightly S that star by 3.25’—galaxy is NF vertex of this pentagon—pentagon elongated major axis N-S—just outside edge of field, 26′ SF galaxy, is a 10th-mag star—N of galaxy by 19′ from galaxy’s center is a 9.5-mag star

Some time back, I had set the odd goal of observing a galaxy in every constellation visible from my local observing sites. There’s no scientific value to this, and it’s unlikely to be finished without a massive scope (as Sagitta and Scutum have no galaxies plotted even on the TriAtlas, meaning that I’ll have to plumb even deeper than that set of charts is able to go). But there’s an odd appeal about this to me, and it will push me to explore parts of the sky I wouldn’t normally bother with.

One of these lost corners of the sky is the constellation of Caelum, the Chisel. Caelum is a small, dim constellation just east of Eridanus and south of Lepus. It boasts one notable object: the distorted spiral galaxy NGC 1679, which somehow even escaped the attention of Halton Arp when compiling his groundbreaking Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies.

I had set an alarm to alert me to the galaxy’s 7:16 PM transit time—the time at which the galaxy would be at its highest point in the sky, and therefore at its best visibility. Unfortunately, the galaxy’s meridian transit was still behind the mountain ridge, and I had to wait another several minutes before it would be above a low spot in the ridge enough to observe. Even at that point, it wasn’t the most impressive of objects, but it fulfilled a need to find something within Caelum, and was a rewarding object all its own.

NGC 1679 (Cae)—a bit of a wish fulfillment—very low in sky, barely cleared top of the ridge—could easily overlook, but definitely noticeable—not a threshold object—elongated mostly N-S, maybe N slightly P-S slightly F—very diffuse and weakened by altitude—decent-sized—a little bit of irregular central brightening, an odd shape—maybe a very faint stellar nucleus flashes in averted—has a 14.5-mag star on NP edge of halo that makes it hard to see if there’s a nucleus or not—threshold star on SP edge of halo—2.25′ x 1.75’—[very bright satellite through NP edge of field]—difficult halo to define—P and a little bit N of galaxy by 6′ is the more-southern of a pair of 11.5-mag stars; other in pair is NP the first; separated by 2’—NP galaxy by 5′ is a 14th-mag star—galaxy seems a bit triangular pointing to N very slightly P edge

I had also hoped to sweep up NGC 1512 in the more-southerly constellation Horologium (The Clock). But there was no chance of this at Eagle’s Ridge, as the galaxy and nearby bright stars Alpha and Delta Horologii would never make it above the ridge-line. They may barely be possible from Eureka Ridge, which has the best southern horizon of our regular observing sites, but even then, the galaxy will be a ghost of its expected brightness.

My observations on this night were, as I discovered later, considerably hampered by atmospheric extinction down at low altitudes. Many of my targets were within ten degrees of the ridge-top, and suffered from the extremely poor seeing and unexpectedly-poor transparency there; although the sky seemed decent-enough down there, my estimates of stellar magnitudes at the lower declinations were as many as 1.5 magnitudes too low.

NGCs 1332, 1325, 1319, 1315 (Eri)—1332: very bright—kind of a miniature NGC 7331?—elongated NP-SF—has a bright core and an obvious substellar nucleus—2.25′ x 0.75’—well-defined—hard to get good focus this low—galaxy has threshold star just S of nucleus off edge of halo; star difficult to hold—N of galaxy by 8′ is a very faint fuzzy glow, no discernable size, just very small weak diffuse glow, another galaxy? [??] Mainly averted object—NP 1332 by 22′ is a 9th-mag star—field immediately around galaxy is otherwise pretty barren of stars—SP 1332 by 29′ is 1325: considerably more difficult, partly because it has a brightish (12.5-mag) star on NF edge—galaxy elongated SP-NF—due F by 1′ from center of galaxy is a threshold star—more diffuse than 1332—hard to tell if there’s a nucleus because of star on edge—has some moderate central brightening—2.0′ x 0.67’—another star NF the star on galaxy’s edge by 3.75′; that second star is 13th-mag—S of galaxy by 8′ is an 10th-mag star—P galaxy by 16′ is a line of three stars, of which brightest is in middle; brightest is 12th-mag, other two are 13.5-mag—S of galaxy by 17′ is another group of stars—back to line of three, which is about 3′ long; brightest star is NP star next to it by 0.75′, while third star is 2.25′ the brightest—halfway between that line and NGC 1325 is 1319: very difficult glow of indeterminate size and shape—elongated NF-SP?—hard to hold steady in direct vision—[fogged up eyepiece]—0.75′ x 0.5’—may have very very faint stellar nucleus—threshold star just off NP end of galaxy—back to line of three stars: 10′ NP the brightest star in the line is a 0.75′ glow (1315): has a 14.5-mag star SF galaxy by 1.5’—stellar nucleus that pops in averted—very diffuse galaxy, but brighter than 1319—a little more concentration than 1319—not well defined—easy to miss 1315 and 1319 without knowing they were there

My next target was also a bit of a wishful-thinking object. NGC 1532, along with its attendant galaxy NGC 1531, is one of the most striking spiral galaxies in photographs, and had always been problematic from Illinois due to southern light pollution. Here, as with NGC 1679, I had to wait for the pair to clear the ridge; even diminished by the altitude, 1532 was impressive.

NGCs 1532, 1531 (Eri)—way down low, on edge of ridge—seeing is very poor—1532: a huge galaxy, even considering conditions—elongated SP-NF—4.5′ x 0.75’—has an obvious substellar nucleus and bright core—well-defined halo—no traces of bend in arms—1531: P 1532, very slightly N of 1532’s nucleus—elongated P-F—0.5′ x 0.3’—a wide sliver of darkness between two galaxies—doesn’t have a visible nucleus—slightly brighter core—NP 1531 by 3′ is a 14th-mag star—these galaxies are in a long triangle of bright stars; brightest (8.5-mag) is to NF of the center of 1532 by 14′; SP of 1532’s nucleus by 7′ is an 11.5-mag star and P the nucleus by 8′ is an 11th-mag star; stars separated by 7’—F 1532 is a pair of 13.5-mag stars, separated by 2.5′

And then it was back to Herscheling for the rest of the evening:

NGC 1353 (Eri)—seeing is better here than at previous galaxies—elongated NP-SF—has an obvious nucleus—brighter core—pretty well-defined, can see all the way to the edge—2.25′ x 0.75’—2.5′ SF from nucleus is a 13th-mag star—a 14th-mag star SP galaxy by 6’—NF galaxy by 15′ is a pair of stars; brighter NP fainter by 3.5′; mags 11.5 and 12—F slightly N of galaxy by 13′ is an 11th-mag star—pretty nice galaxy

NGC 1114 (Eri)—one of most difficult Herschels I’ve looked at so far—getting windier—galaxy a bummer—very very faint glow—elongated N-S—very very diffuse—poorly defined—2.0′ x 0.5′?—almost no central brightening—from SF to NP, galaxy is third element in a line of four (including three stars)—”elements” are roughly equally spaced—star at SF end is 8th-mag; next is 8.5-mag, then galaxy, then at NP end of line is an 8th-mag star; all four elements in line spaced 8-10′ from the next; whole line about 30’—seeing poor down here—passed over galaxy at least once

It’s no exaggeration to say that NGC 1114 may be one of the most difficult objects in either of the Astronomical League’s Herschel observing programs. A dud, at least in these conditions.

It was well-compensated for by the next target.

NGC 1421 (Eri)—very impressive!—just S of “Zaurak bend”—elongated N-S—3.0′ x 0.67’—fairly well defined, particularly on N end—N end a little wider than S end—not a lot of central brightening to galaxy—diffuse but well defined—2/3 of the way from S to N is a dark obscuration across galaxy’s width—3′ off S end F is a threshold star—P galaxy and a bit N by 3′ is a 13th-mag star—N very slightly P galaxy’s center by 7′ is a 14th-mag star—S and SF the galaxy is an irregular grouping of 9th-12th-mag stars that takes up a big chunk of S and SF edges of field—NP galaxy by 20′ is a diamond of stars whose major axis runs SP-NF and is composed of 10th/12th-mag stars; major axis 7′ long

The Zaurak Bend is one of two asterisms I use for finding objects in Eridanus. Consisting of Gamma (Zaurak, “The Boat”; there’s also an actual US warship named after the star), Pi, Delta, and Epsilon Eridani, the Zaurak Bend is a mere zig-zag of stars prominent mostly for being the only real bright stars in the immediate vicinity. It’s not even a real asterism; I’ve called it the Zaurak Bend since my Cincinnati days, as it was the only part of the constellation visible from my backyard other than Beta Eridani. Epsion Eridani is noteworthy for both its proximity (it’s the 10th-closest star to the Sun) and for having one of the first extra-solar dust disks discovered; the presence of a dust disk is a sign of a possible planetary system. No planets have yet been verified around Epsilon Eri, but time will tell. The dust disk is itself noteworthy.

The other asterism I “created” in Eridanus lies just below the Zaurak Bend, and consists of Tau4, 5, 6, 7 Eridani and 15 Eridani. This group resembles (at least to my cave-painting inspired brain) a downward-pointing radio dish, as seen in Episode 8 of Carl Sagan’s Cosmos, in which Sagan fast-forwards the constellation Cetus until it looks like a radio telescope. The “Radio Dish” is a pretty feeble attempt at asterism-defining, but it works for me; the NGC 1332 group and NGC 1353 were all found using it, and I’d intended to go back for the NGC 1228/1229/1230 group in the Dish as well, but got sidetracked and didn’t return to it.

At this point, the wind had become an issue. I had noticed frost on my telescope’s shroud as early as 7:30, and the wind could be heard increasing in strength on some of my recordings. The cold by itself wasn’t a huge deal, although the chemical warmers I was using weren’t very effective tonight even in my gloves. Worried about my iPad being impacted by the below-freezing temperatures despite the precautions I’d taken, I took the iPad into the van and sat for a little while, running the heater for a bit in the dark, trying to warm my hands up a bit more. By the time I got back to observing, I was reasonably warmed up. It didn’t last long; it took me quite a while to star-hop over to my next target, despite it being in a star-rich region.

NGC 1762 (Ori)—tiny elliptical-ish—maybe 0.5′ round—not overly dim, but quite small—has a brighter core region and substellar nucleus—pretty well-defined galaxy amid a rich field—ADS 3623 P galaxy by 23’—ADS 3623 is yellow-white primary, bluish secondary; primary 7th-mag, secondary 9.5; primary SP the secondary; separated by 0.3’—brightest star in galaxy’s field is closest vertex of a triangle NP galaxy; brightest star (10th-mag) is 8.5′ NP galaxy, and is F-most vertex of triangle; bottom of triangle runs P-F and is 6′ long; P-most vertex is 11th-mag; third vertex is N of other two, NP brightest by 4′ and is 13th-mag

NGC 1832 (Lep)—much brighter than 1762, not bad—smallish, 1.0′ round—diffuse halo, brighter core, no visible nucleus—just outside halo on F side is a 12.5-mag star—N slightly F galaxy’s nucleus by 5′ is an 10.5-mag star; NF that star by 3.5′ is a 12th-mag star—galaxy forms NF vertex of a triangle with an 11th-mag star P and very slightly S by 11′; S very slightly P by 12′ is an 11.5-mag star—F galaxy by 18′ is a double star; very unequal components; separated P very slightly S-F very slightly N; brighter component F; separated by 0.4′; 11th and 13th-mags—double star N very slightly P galaxy by 8′; aligned P very slightly S-F very slightly N; F star is brighter; 13th– and 14th– mags, separated by 0.5’—seeing really mushy now

NGC 2283 (CMa)—a lot of nothing—quite difficult—extremely diffuse, no central brightening—inside a close triangle of 14th/15th-mag stars, two to N, one to S—hard to gauge galaxy’s dimensions, 1.5′ round?— two “brighter” vertices of triangle are on N side of galaxy; 14th/14.5-mags, with 14th-mag star NP galaxy, 14.5-mag to NF; third vertex on S edge of galaxy—P galaxy by 10′ is an 8th-mag star

NGC 2339 (Gem)—faint but obvious—1.75′ round—some slight irregularly-bright central concentration, very faint nucleus or threshold star slightly to NF center of glow—not well defined—galaxy bracketed to P and N slightly F sides by 12th-mag stars; star to P is slightly brighter than other; star to NF about 3′ from galaxy’s center; star to P is 3.5′ from center of galaxy; halfway between galaxy and star to P is a 14.5-mag star—15th-mag star 2.5′ S slightly F galaxy—13th-mag star F and slightly S galaxy by 4.5’—brightest star in field is one of a trio along N and NF edges of field; N slightly F galaxy by 19′ is a pair of 9th-mag stars separated by 3.5′; one is P slightly N the other; F and slightly N of galaxy by 20′ is an 8.5-mag star

I knew of the bright supernova in NGC 2525, but hadn’t prepared a chart for it—stupidly, as it turned out. Usually, with extragalactic supernovae, I would sketch the scene. I hadn’t remembered to bring my sketching gear, though, so I was stuck here. I took extra care to note every star in the vicinity of the galaxy, which was a lot; it’s the middle of the winter Milky Way, after all. When I originally wrote this post, I thought I had figured out which star was the supernova, but the more I looked at photos of the supernova and compared them with my notes, the less certain I became. So I’ve edited the notes a bit to remove the supernova reference; if I can’t positively identify which star was the supernova from my descriptions, I’m not going to claim to have seen it.

The galaxy also produced an unfortunate effect: try saying “NGC 2525” without doing it to the tune of Zager & Evans’ “In the Year 2525.” It stuck with me the rest of the night.

NGC 2525 (Pup)—Zager & Evans joke here—interesting galaxy—large, very diffuse glow—elongated P-F-ish—not much central concentration—2.5′ x 2.0’—whole lot of faint stars scattered around it—off P edge is a 13.5-mag star; that star has a threshold-level star 0.25′ due P—on S edge of the galaxy is a pair or trio of threshold-level stars about 1′ from galaxy’s halo; F and slightly S that group is another 15th-mag star—just on N edge of halo is a 14.5-mag star; another 14.5-mag star just beyond halo by 1′ on F side of galaxy—galaxy between a squiggle of 4 stars to S and a 9.5-mag star N of galaxy; brightest in squiggle (11th-mag) is on NP end, 5′ from center of galaxy; second-brightest star in squiggle on SF end—star to N of galaxy 6′ from galaxy’s edge; leading from N edge of galaxy up to SP side of that star is an arc of five 14.5/15th-mag stars

By now, I had starting getting chilled again. My list of galaxy targets was huge; I could’ve spent the whole night there, alternating between the telescope and the interior of the van. I could have also gotten a nap in the van before heading home. But I was starting to lose steam, having operated on only four hours’ sleep and almost no food all day. Much as I regretted the idea, I needed to think about heading home. Time, then, for one more target, another low-lier altitude-wise, and probably the best of the night.

NGC 2613 (Pyx)—interesting galaxy—large edge-on spiral—elongated P slightly N-F slightly S—3.25′ x 0.75’—irregular central brightening along length, very mottled—well-defined galaxy—a number of faint stars N and S of it—brightest of these is a 13.5-mag star P galaxy by 2.5′ from galaxy’s center—14th-mag star due N of galaxy’s center by 1.5’—brightest in field are NP galaxy; one (10.5-mag) is NP galaxy by 8′; other (10th-mag) is NP that star by 5′; NF galaxy by 9′ is an 11.5-mag star

It was tough to pack up. Clear nights in February were a rarity here in the Willamette Valley, at least in the three winters I’ve been here. But this last winter has been the best I’ve had in that three years with regards to observing; we managed at least one good session per Moon-dark phase, and I was less starved for starlight than I had planned for when October rolled in.

Nonetheless, I regretted leaving so early. The early spring galaxy fields were starting to rotate into view; Leo and the Big Dipper (and the rest of Ursa Major), Hydra and Lynx and Camelopardalis were all becoming prominent, and there were still winter galaxies to plunder. (I had missed NGC 1162 in Eridanus, for example, despite it being on my list.) For once, I let discretion get the better of me, and with no-one else there for encouragement, I slowly stowed my gear for the drive back down the mountain.

The mountain road is only 10.5 miles from the Ridge to the bridge that marks the junction with Lost Creek Road. This takes easily half of the driving time needed to get to and from Eagle’s Ridge, and requires much more concentration than the highway/town half of the drive; deer, fallen branches, and axle-busting potholes are among the hazards of the return trip down, and on this night, there was also frost on the road to make it just a little more treacherous.

By the time I hit Lost Creek Road and higher speeds, my concentration began to pall. I had a can of Pepsi (yuck) for caffeine, but chose not to use it. Instead, I spent much of the remaining drive pondering the question, trying to formulate an answer while getting safely home.

Why am I doing this?

The answer never came to me.

But I would most certainly be back out the next clear Moon-dark night with another list of galaxies, giving in to whatever need starlight fills.




Singing on the River of Silence

January 13th had been forecast to be clear for quite a few days, an isolated blue island amid a sea of white blocks on the Clear Sky Chart for Eagle’s Rest. As it was a Saturday night with a day off before a couple of work shifts—not to mention the first potential observing session of the new year—I’d been eagerly awaiting the opportunity to haul a scope or two out of town for some dark-sky time.

My initial plan, as the day grew closer, was to haul out the EAS 18″ scope for some extreme observing: Abell planetary nebulae, some of the more-difficult Hickson groups and Abell galaxy clusters (plus a few Shakhbazian groups), and a number of unusual nebulae (including Gyulbudaghian’s Variable Nebula around the star PV Cephei). I spent about four hours plundering the interstellarum Deep-Sky Atlas for targets, creating an observing list in Sky Safari that I could take out with the iPad as an adjunct to the iDSA.

And yet, on the morning of the 13th, I had a change of mind. The CSC was now showing the transparency going to crap before midnight. I’d been considering taking Bob the (12.5″) Dob to pick off a few more Herschel galaxies anyway, but figured the time I’d taken to make a list for the 18″ would force me to commit to the larger scope and fainter targets. The CSC was the final decider, though; there was less impetus to take the big scope if I was only going to get six or so hours out of it (an excuse, really—six hours was plenty of time). So when 3 PM rolled around, it was Bob the Dob that got loaded into the Caveman-Mobile for the fifty-minute trip southeast.

I was the second member of EAS to get to the gravel site, having left a bit earlier than I normally get to—Bill B was already there, setting up his astrophotography gear and getting the tedious process of polar alignment underway.  Not knowing where anyone else was going to set up (or what gear they would bring), I wandered around the gravel dump for a few minutes, looking for a spot that was neither too muddy nor too uneven. I finally started setting up on a newly-graveled section of the site, one that led into an opening in the woods surrounding the clearing. Jerry and Dan R pulled in a few minutes later and started to unload the 20″ TriDob; Joe E and his friend Roger (and Roger’s grandson) pulled in toward the edge of the clearing shortly after Jerry and Dan.

But the sky wasn’t nearly as clear as any of us had expected.  As I’d driven down to the site, I’d noticed rolling layers of thin, cirrusy haze covering much of the sky, and the crud was pretty all-encompassing from the gravel dump-site. As the sky darkened, there were far fewer stars cutting through the muck than one would see from this site on a completely-clear night. By the time it was truly dark, it seemed as though we’d wasted our time driving down. Cetus, Pisces, and Eridanus (the constellations I’d planned to spend most of my time in) were discernible only as their most-basic figures—almost the way I saw them from light-polluted Cincinnati when I was first learning the sky—with none of the many faint stars that usually filled them in from sites like this one. The farther-southern constellation Sculptor, in which several of my Herschel targets resided, was already well below the treeline from the gravel site.

The issue here was transparency, rather than cloud cover. Clouds can be dealt with; unless the sky is completely covered, it’s a matter of observing through the gaps in the clouds. With poor transparency, though, a thin layer of haze, cirrus, smog, or whatever can gunk up the entire sky, preventing extended nebulous objects (including galaxies) from shining through. In poor seeing, double stars and planets suffer the most, while galaxies and nebulae are somewhat less affected. (I’ve rarely observed in great seeing conditions, but great transparency can be had when there’s no humidity or smoke causing problems.) These three factors—cloud cover, transparency, and seeing—can and often do dictate how an observing session is planned and carried out. For now, the transparency was a serious issue.

I’d planned to work on Sky Atlas 2000.0 charts 18, 10, 11, and 4 this particular night, sweeping up the Herschel 400/HII objects on those charts. After a couple of looks at some of the Chart 10 objects (NGCs 217 and 665), however, I realized that the whole western sky was pretty-well off-limits for the time being; the cirrus in that direction made those two galaxies glow at a mere fraction of their expected brightness.  Chart 4 targets were still a possibility, though, even though I’d have later opportunities for those higher-declination objects than the soon-to-disappear targets on the other three charts. But better for the moment to observe overhead, where the muck was thinner, than down low in the west where I’d be looking through thicker layers of gunk. I wasn’t yet ready to give up on the night.



EAGLE’S REST (gravel pit) (43°50’07.0″N, 122°44’45.0″W)
MOON: 27 days; 9% illuminated, rose at 5:44 AM
SQM: 21.4 (at 10:30 PM)
NELM: not checked
WEATHER CONDITIONS: temps in low 40s, slight breeze

Others present: JO, DR, BB, JE, OG, DB, others

All observations: 12.5 f/5 Discovery truss-tube Dobsonian, 14mm ES 82˚ eyepiece (112x, 0.7˚ TFOV) unless otherwise noted

NGCs 891, 906, 910, 911 (And): 891: not as obvious as on some nights but better than previous two galaxies I searched for tonight (217 and 665)—elongated S slightly P-N slightly F—8.5′ x 1.25′ (at its widest)—in Dob Hole at moment—in averted vision, dust lane is pretty obvious—fairly apparent brighter core/central bulge—galaxy reasonably-well defined—just off F side by 1.5′ from galaxy’s center is a double star of two 13.5-mag components aligned P very slightly S-F very slightly N, separated by 0.5’—NP from center of galaxy by 4′ is an 11.5-mag star—SP center of galaxy by 12′ is another double of equal-mag (11.5-mag) components aligned SP-NF and separated by 0.5′; NF star is closer to galaxy and very slightly fainter than other—galaxy has a 13th-mag star just on SP end—also has an 11th-mag star on P side halfway from center to N end—brightest star in field is of 7th-mag and is 22′ SF galaxy [NGC 898 not visible in poor conditions]—F and somewhat S of that star is a line of three stars, 9th/10th– mags, unevenly spaced, running NP-SF in field and marking the N end of a trapezoid containing much of Abell 347—N slightly F the two of those three stars closest to the 7th-mag star (which are separated by 3.5′) by 5′ is brightest and N-most visible galaxy of Abell 347 (NGC 906): 0.75′ round—fairly undefined with no real central brightening or nucleus—S from those three stars on N end of Abell 347 are the two stars making the S side of the trapezoid, 9′ long, line oriented SP-NF—about halfway between these two stars is second Abell 347 galaxy (NGC 910): 0.5′ round—little bit of central brightening—in averted, maybe a nucleus—third galaxy (NGC 911): due S of star on top line of three (farthest from 7th-mag star) by 2’—0.5′ round with prominent stellar nucleus—not well defined at all but fairly obvious–have seen more galaxies here before, but poor transparency really hampering the view

I had observed NGC 891 several times before; it’s one of the standout galaxies of any season, and a good test of the sky clarity. Even somewhat diminished by the cruddiness of the sky, it was still impressive enough to take notes on (I hadn’t bothered with the other galaxies I’d observed tonight already). I’d seen seven galaxies in Abell 347 on previous occasions but only managed three this time—a further sign that tonight was far from optimal. Nonetheless, we all pressed on with our agendas. Taurus was better placed amid the cirrus than some of the other constellations I’d intended to work in (I took a glance at the Nu Eridani trio [NGC 1618, 1622, and 1625] and found them still under too much haze-cover), so after an undetailed look at NGC 1514 (the Crystal Ball Nebula, a planetary), I went after the two galaxy targets the constellation held:

NGCs 1587, 1588, 1589 (Tau): still disappointing due to transparency—1587: more S of two by 12’—N of an upside-down Big Dipper asterism pouring out to S, oriented (slightly N)P-(slightly S)F—7.5′ due N of asterism star where “bowl” meets “handle”; asterism stars all 9th-10.5-mags—galaxy is roundish, 0.75’—fairly well-defined—brighter core and substellar nucleus—N of 1587 by 3′ is a 12th-mag star—P galaxy by 7′ is a 10th-mag star which has a 12.5-mag companion SF by 1′–another galaxy (NGC 1588) off to F side of 1587, almost in contact—1588: 0.3′ round?—very very slight separation between 88 and 87—up to 1589: elongated N very slightly P–S very slightly F—1.125′ x 0.5’—halo much broader in averted—reasonably well-defined—has an obvious bright core region and stellar nucleus—brightening along major axis—NF center of galaxy by 1′ is a 13th-mag star—trio here much better than Nu Eri trio ATM

Oggie pulled up into the clearing with his Zhumell Dob; not long after, Dan B and his daughter (and some of her friends) came down from Eagle’s Ridge proper, where they’d been observing. Dan commented that the winds on the Ridge were too strong for decent observing, reinforcing Jerry’s notion that we were better-off in the tree-lined gravel pit.

I took some time off from Herschel galaxies to explore the winter sky away from the late-fall galaxy fields. The transparency was gradually improving, and I hoped for it to be at least average before I went back into galaxy “work.” My list for the 18″ scope had included supernova remnant IC 433 in Gemini’s foot, but I was unable to ferret any traces of the nebula out of the background—even going with the wider (1-degree) field of the Meade 24mm SWA eyepiece and a UHC filter. NGC 2174 (in Orion’s club) showed a minor wealth of detail, however, along with the embedded open cluster NGC 2175. I failed to turn up Sharpless 2-261, Lower’s Nebula, even after ten minutes or so of sweeping in the right area of the sky.

I ducked down into Monoceros to take my chances with some of the bright nebulae there: the Rosette was quite striking, its central void plainly apparent amid the flower-like hydrogen cloud; Hubble’s Variable Nebula was a small but bright fan-shaped glow with well-defined edges; the Cone Nebula was beyond the grasp of my scope, but its attendant star cluster (NGC 2264, The Christmas Tree Cluster) was brilliant. I’ve long wanted to chase after the long string of reflection nebulae (starting at NGC 2175) that trail along toward Gamma Monocerotis, but got sidetracked and didn’t get to it.

I also had a treat courtesy of Jerry’s TriDob: the Horsehead Nebula, as easy to see as it could be and the best view of it I’d had since that long ago trip to the late, lamented Star Hill Inn. The illuminated strip behind the nebula, IC 434, shimmered like a faint auroral curtain running 1 o’clock-8 o’clock through the field, with the Horsehead itself—Barnard 33—silhouetted against it, an inky-black projection that was very obviously between us and IC 434. The NGC 2023 portion of the nebulosity wrapped cotton-like around its host star somewhere around 6 o’clock from the Horsehead. Dan commented that he couldn’t make out the direction the Horsehead was facing, just the black nebulous notch of the silhouette. I thought the Horsehead was facing toward 8 o’clock, but wasn’t totally sure; Jerry confirmed that this was indeed the right direction.

The constellation Eridanus winds its way south and west from Orion’s bright blue foot Rigel. It’s a fairly shapeless constellation, in keeping with what it represents: a celestial River, sometimes thought to be the River Po in Italy. A river in the city-state of Athens was later named the Eridanos, after the constellation. The constellation itself is a dim, winding string of stars that disappears below the southern horizon for mid-Northern observers, terminating in the 1st-magnitude star Achernar. The vast majority of the constellation’s objects of note are galaxies, many of them large and impressive targets for telescopes; there is also a bright planetary nebula (NGC 1535, sometimes called Cleopatra’s Eye) and a very difficult globular cluster (The Eridanus Cluster, not to be confused with the Eridanus Galaxy Cluster, centered on NGCs 1400 and 1407 [c.f.]). This globular was the object of an intense search and triumph by your Caveman way back in ’98 during his trip to the Star Hill Inn—one of the defining moments of his astronomy “career.”

Tonight, I was dredging the River for galaxies… Herschel galaxies, specifically those clustered around that portion of the River that flows by Orion’s foot. With the transparency temporarily improved, it was time to take advantage of the better conditions and capture photons from those Herschel objects still drifting above the treetops.

NGC 1779 (Eri): improving transparency (about 5 now)—galaxy elongated mostly P-F—0.67′ x 0.3, quite small—has a brighter core and a faint substellar nucleus visible with direct—not well defined—may extend to just under 1.0′ x 0.5′ in moments of better transparency–in field with a great many stars of a great range of magnitudes—SF galaxy by 2′ is a 13.5-mag star—a 13.5-mag star F very slightly N by 3’—4.5′ NF galaxy is another 13.5-mag star—NP galaxy by 6′ is a 12th-mag star; P that star by 9′ is an 11th-mag star

I did get caught up here in interest in Comet PanSTARRS, which Jerry had swept up in the 20″ scope, and made sure to take my turn gazing at this cosmic interloper. The comet was hardly an impressive sight: a faint wispy glow, like that of a diffuse elliptical galaxy (such as NGC 147). I don’t recall seeing a tail, although a couple of us did manage to catch a few glimmers from the comet’s nucleus. I noticed around this time that Oggie, Dan B and the kids, and Roger and his grandson had all left during the previous hour.

Somewhere during that time, the transparency had hit a peak. The Milky Way glittered brightly at the meridian. Orion, Gemini, and Auriga shone steadily and brilliantly against a dark background tapestry; Leo and Hydra’s head emerged from the treetops to the east. It was true that I’d seen much better skies here, but at the moment it was hard to be critical. The sky and its hidden jewels beckoned.

We also stopped by Messier 46, a naked-eye open cluster in the constellation Puppis. M46 is a rich cluster, made even more interesting by the apparent membership of a planetary nebula (NGC 2438) among its stars; the nebula is in fact just over halfway between us and the stars of the cluster, and therefore a mere line-of-sight coincidence.

And then it was back to a field I’d already observed earlier in the evening, when the transparency was awful:

NGCs 1618, 1622, 1625 (Eri): all lie in an arc N of Nu Eridani—1618 and 1622 both elongated SP-NF—1625 elongated NP-SF—1618: 12.5′ N vary slightly P Nu Eri—pretty diffuse—has a somewhat brighter core—not well-defined at all—not even brightest of three, despite Herschel seeing only 1618 of trio—1.0′ x 0.5’—Nu makes it very hard to view galaxies here—NF 1618 by 1.75′ is a 14th-mag star—F and slightly N by 1.75′ is a 12.5-mag star–11th-mag star SF galaxy by 3.5’—F and slightly S by 8′ is NGC 1622: 11′ N slightly F of Nu Eri—almost same size as 1618, but has less halo—1.0′ x 0.3’—brighter central region and faint substellar nucleus—galaxy NP a triangle of 11/12.5/13th-mag stars that are about halfway and F a line between 1622 and Nu Eri—sky is boiling down here now—triangle: F-most vertex is brightest star in it, equidistant from Nu and 1622 at 7′, SF 1622 and NF Nu—largest of three galaxies is NGC 1625: 10′ SF 1622—best defined of three—not too diffuse—not much central brightening, just a glowing streak —elongated NP-SF—1.67 x 0.3’—has a 12th-mag star just off P end—due N of galaxy by 6.5′ is an 11th-mag star—S by 4′ is a 12th-mag star

NGC 1637 (Eri): big roundish face-on spiral—super-diffuse, not well-defined at all—roundish, 2.5’—has a smallish brighter core, maybe central 0.75’— every now and then a faint hint of substellar nucleus which is better seen in averted—core offset to SP side—bracketed to N and S slightly F by stars 7′ from galaxy’s center; star to N is an 11th-mag; star to SF is 12th-mag—12th-mag star just off N slightly F edge of halo—13th-mag star N of galaxy by 3.5′ from edge of galaxy’s halo—NP galaxy by 14′ is a 10.5-mag star that has an 11.5-mag star to N by 2′ and a 13.5-mag star SF by 2′

NGC 1700 (Eri): not at all remarkable by the standards of Herschel galaxies—N slightly F 62 Eri—reasonably bright but small—0.75′ x 0.67′–in averted the halo pops more—slight bit of elongation maybe P-ish-F-ish—bright core—bright substellar nucleus—[very slow satellite through N edge of field, moving P-F]—not well defined, halo mostly vanishes without averted—11th-mag star SP galaxy by 2.5’—8.5-mag star NP galaxy by 6’—N slightly F galaxy by 17′ is a 10th-mag star—an arc of 8th/10th-mag stars along F edge of field from galaxy from NF to SF—”giraffe-like” asterism (including 62 Eri) extending its neck SF to NP from 62, with one leg N of 62 and 62 in the southern leg

NGC 1507 (Eri): really difficult at the moment; perhaps 6 transparency; seeing poor—long, thin N-S streak—just S of cool round asterism that takes up most of the edges of the field N of the galaxy, made of mostly 9.5/10th-mag stars; asterism about 30′ round—galaxy is almost “flat”—2.25′ x 0.3’—has very little central brightening—SF the S end of the galaxy’s halo by 3′ is an 11th-mag star—13.5-mag star just P the middle of the galaxy—galaxy well defined, better defined on F edge as if dust lane on that edge [no visible dust lane, but a dark “jut” into NF end of galaxy]—9′ due N of galaxy is bottom of round asterism—passed over galaxy the first time I looked for it here

By this point, the transparency was starting to fail again—just as the Clear Sky Chart had predicted. Naked-eye stars were taking on halos across much of the sky, and the fainter stars that filled in the spaces between the familiar, named ones were dwindling in number. The winter Milky Way, so spectacular through Orion, Monoceros, and Canis Major, had started to lose its definition. Time for observing was growing short.

NGCs 1600, 1603 (Eri): last for the night—transparency decaying again—”typical” NGC galaxy—reasonably bright—a bit elongated N slightly P-S slightly F—fairly poorly defined—sometimes more halo visible—1.0′ x 0.5’—brighter core that’s fairly small—no nucleus?—interior of galaxy seems “jumbled” somehow, as if irregularly bright—surrounded on P and S sides by a group of faint stars—to S by 2.5′ from center of galaxy is a 12th-mag star—due P by 2.5′ is a 12.5-mag star—NP by 3′ and 4.5′ is a pair of 12th-mag stars—NF galaxy by 12′ is an 8th-mag star—NP galaxy to NP edge of field is an interesting ‘Y’ asterism with fork to SP and stem to NF; star to end of stem is brightest; stars are 8th/10th-mags—just F and slightly N of galaxy by 2.5′ is another galaxy (1603): excruciatingly faint—0.75’—no central brightening at all—very difficult—just on threshold of direct vision—even averted doesn’t help much—this part of sky in poor viewing position

Jerry and Dan R began to tear down the TriDob; Dan was a church organist (among his many other talents) and needed to be home by 1 AM to be ready for his morning work. Joe had left at some point earlier after our view of M46 and NGC 2438. I spent several minutes absorbed in a view of the Orion Nebula—how could one not do so when the nebula was visible?—before beginning to tear down my own gear.

Jerry and Dan headed out. I waited with Bill B to make sure he got all his gear stowed. It was an old habit from my Carbondale days: as the AASI president, I made sure to always be the last man out of the observing field, to make sure no-one got left behind. I never minded being the last person out; at Giant City or Crab Orchard, I often stayed out observing long after the others went home, but here it was more a matter of safety. Having seen bears in the woods near one of our observing sites, I would have been uncomfortable leaving someone on his own unless his camper was nearby for shelter if need be.

Gear stowed, we headed home. There was a fair amount of fog on the drive down, and a surprising amount of traffic driving up the road as we descended it. And then the highway home, only half the total drive, with a headful of galaxies and a van full of Caravan.


… echoes of december…

A week after our previous excursion, we found ourselves again out at Eagle’s Rest under clear December skies—an unlikely occurrence, given my previous winter experiences here in the Willamette Valley. The CSC forecast was as good as I’d seen it for a winter’s night, so there was no doubt I’d be making the nearly hour-long drive. Herschel objects awaited.

The fog was ominous, however. In fact, it didn’t even wait for nightfall this time; it was already pea-soup dense by the time I reached Highway 58 south, letting up only slightly down at the “bottomlands” along Rattlesnake/Lost Creek Road. Fortunately, despite the fog, I was able to find the bus stop at the end of Eagle’s Rest Road, the stop that we all used as a landmark for turning up the mountain.

I left the fog behind early on the trip up, but there was still the unsettling feeling that it would make its presence felt before long. Even though it was perfectly clear at the gravel site, I didn’t start unloading my gear, choosing instead to wait for the others and their opinions.

Jerry and Joe E pulled in a couple of minutes after me. None of us was quite willing to commit to going up to the Ridge yet; we had a new member (Dan B, owner of Doge, who had trekked out to Eureka with us during the summer) who had been to neither of the Eagle’s sites and might not know his way up, and I was leery of taking the Caveman-Mobile up on the gravel road if it was icy. After a few minutes’ hedging, though, we decided to take the risk and go the final four miles to the spur road at Eagle’s Ridge, our decision further abetted by Jerry’s contacting of Oggie G (as Oggie knew Dan and would pass along the message that we’d gone to the “summit”) in a moment of good cell reception.

It was not a simple drive up. The ridge itself is only 3.4 miles farther up the mountain than the gravel site, but it’s not a fast 3.4 miles—the road winds in ways that roads shouldn’t wind, and the last half-mile is a steep climb up rutted gravel. This particular night, the gravel was also spotted with patches of ice—some of them large and treacherous. This was where I ran into trouble, getting stuck about a third of the way up, with Jerry already at the top and Joe behind me in a vehicle much more capable of handling the conditions.

At length, Jerry walked down to see what had happened, and he and Joe managed to help me extricate the van from where it was stuck. Once we got the van moving, I kept it moving until I got to the Ridge spot at the junction; I felt bad leaving Jerry to walk, but I think Joe must’ve given him a ride up (I don’t recall at this point). I waited for them before we decided to pull onto the spur road and set up, Dan finding his way up as I was putting my scope together. (Jerry had to walk down to the junction to direct Dan to the spur road site, as he went too far up the road in the opposite direction.)

I had no intention of staying past midnight this particular night, as I had a four-day run of work beginning the next morning. But this looked to be a pretty spectacular night, and with clear winter nights so rare here, I needed to make some headway on the Herschel lists while conditions allowed it. So I got to work as quickly as possible—our wait at the gravel site and my getting stuck on the road having used up the evening twilight—jumping in just before 7 PM with what turned out to be the brightest member of a long chain of galaxies in Pisces… one I had first seen at the 2016 Oregon Star Party, which by now seemed an eternity ago.


EAGLE’S RIDGE (spur road)
MOON: 22 days (44% illuminated; rose at 12:56 AM)
SQM: 21.5 (at 11 PM)
NELM: not checked
WEATHER CONDITIONS: temps in low 30s, breezy early

Others present: JO. JE, DB

All observations: 12.5″ f/5 Discovery truss-tube Dobsonian, 14mm ES 82˚ eyepiece (112x, 0.7˚ TFOV); 10mm Delos (158x, 0.5˚ TFOV) used for observation of Arp 141

NGCs 198, 200, 194, 193, 204, 203, 182  (Psc): galaxy central–chain goes on a long S-N way and a bit P–198: diffuse round glow–somewhat brighter core–does not have a visible nucleus–1.25′–not well defined, fades into background–gradually brightens to core but halo fades out–galaxy is N-most vertex of an isosceles triangle–to SP by 5.5′ is a 11.5-mag star; to SF by 5.5′ is a 10th-mag star; two stars separated by 8′–long side of triangle is to the S edge of field–N of galaxy by 3.5′ and 4.5′ are two 12th-mag stars–NF 198 by 6.5′ is a second galaxy (NGC 200):  elongated NP-SF–1.25′ x 0.75′–equally bright as 198–not much of a core but a substellar nucleus–face-on spiral?–almost due N of NGC 200 by 5.5′ is an 11th-mag star–NP that star by 6′ is a third galaxy (NGC 194): smaller than previous two–slightly elongated N-S–1.0′ x 0.75′–brightish substellar nucleus but not much visible core–not particularly well defined, fades away raggedly–N slightly P 194 by 5.5′ is a 7th-mag star–12′ N of that star is NGC 193: has a 13th-mag star on SP edge of halo–roundish–has diffuse halo with a brighter core–no real nucleus visible–F and slightly S by 3.5′ is a 10.5-mag star–F and slightly S of that star by 4′ is NGC 204: round–quite diffuse–very poorly defined–1.0′ round–distinct substellar nucleus–may have a threshold star just off SF edge of halo??–13.5-mag star 2′ to NP–back to the 10.5-mag star between 193 and 204: due N by 7.5′ is another fainter galaxy, NGC 203: very intangible–brighter nucleus that’s most obvious thing about it–0.67′ round–extremely diffuse, very difficult, could be mistaken for a threshold star in poorer seeing–N of that galaxy by 11′ is an 8th-mag star–back to 198: 21′ SP 198 is an 8th-mag star–SF that star by 4′ is another galaxy (NGC 182): quite diffuse–1.25′ round–substellar nucleus and slightly-brighter core–quite diffuse–one of brighter galaxies in group; none are “bright” and all would be better served by a few more inches of aperture

NGC 175 (Cet): very very diffuse, plus seeing “soft”–largish galaxy–slightly elongated P slightly N-F slightly S–1.5′ x 1.25′–has a very faintly brighter core–core not well defined–very faint nucleus, threshold star on P edge of halo?–forms nearly-isosceles triangle with an 11th-mag star F very slightly N of galaxy by 5′ and a 12th-mag star S very slightly F of galaxy by 4.25′–two stars separated by 6.5′

NGC 337 (Cet): very interesting galaxy–a colliding pair P-F? [No]–bright galaxy with irregular-shaped core–elongated NP-SF–large galaxy–2.0′ x 1.5′–SP point of pentagon of stars–no nucleus–N very slightly P galaxy by 6′ is a double star of NP-SF aligned components separated by 0.5′; SP star 12.5-mag, NF star 13th-mag–5.5′ NF galaxy is an 11th-mag star; 4.5′ NF that star is an 11th-mag star; NP by 6′ is the brightest in pentagon at 10th-mag which is separated from double star by 5′ from fainter component–5.5′ NF of galaxy in middle of pentagon is 13th-mag star 

NGC 428 (Cet): nice large diffuse galaxy–elongated P somewhat N-F somewhat S–2.5′ x 1.75′–bracketed on P slightly N and F slightly S edges of halo by 13th-mag stars–just off NF edge of halo is a 13.5-mag star–irregularly bright, almost mottled–long brighter central region that makes up inner 50% of galaxy–halo irregularly bright and pretty well defined–no visible nucleus–bracketed on NP and SP by 9th-mag stars each 6′ from center of galaxy–due F galaxy by 9′ is a 10.5-mag star–on NP edge of central brightening are a couple of very faintly brighter spots

NGC 636 (Cet): surrounded by brightish stars in an interesting field–galaxy pretty bright–roundish–0.75′ round–bright core and bright substellar nucleus–well-defined halo–probably elliptical–forms a diamond with two 14th-mag stars and a 13th-mag star; one of 14th-mag stars is 3′ SF and other is 3′ N very slightly F; 13th-mag star is 3.5′ F slightly N the galaxy–S very slightly F galaxy by 7′ is an 10.5-mag star; SF that star by 7.5′ is another 10.5-mag star–star S slightly F galaxy is southernmost vertex in triangle of one 10.5-mag and two 9th-mag stars whose N side is 17′ long and other two sides are 20′ long–brightest star is NF galaxy by 16′ and other 9th-mag star NP galaxy by 16′

NGC 779 (Cet): very bright edge-on spiral–TriAtlas has wrong orientation–galaxy elongated N slightly P-S slightly F–very large–2.5′ x 1.3′–obvious stellar nucleus–brighter core/central region–well defined–no hint of a dust lane–to S of galaxy by 4.5′ is a 12th-mag star–S slightly P galaxy by 11′ is the brighter of a double star, which is 10th-mag and fainter is 13.5-mag; fainter component is SF brighter by 0.67′–N of galaxy by 8.5′ is a 12th-mag star–NP galaxy by 10′ is a 12.5-mag star–Messier-quality galaxy!

Jerry’s primary target of the evening was asteroid 3200 Phaethon, and he located it among the stars of Auriga. I’d never seen an asteroid visibly drift before, and took a break from faint(ish) galaxies to take advantage of the opportunity; it was incredible to see a natural object move among the stars at such a rate of speed.

NGC 1045 (Cet): least-impressive individual galaxy so far this evening–0.75′ x 0.5′–elongated SP-NF–bracketed to N and SF by brightish stars; star to N is 10.5-mag 7′ from galaxy; 9.5′ SF is an 11th-mag star–galaxy fairly diffuse and not well-defined–somewhat brighter core and a substellar nucleus–maybe a threshold star on SP edge of core, almost like a double nucleus–just outside field of view to F and SF (22′ each away from galaxy) are 10th-mag stars–NP galaxy by 11′ is a double star: less than 0.25′ separation; 11th-mag and 12.5-mag components; brighter star SP fainter

NGC 991 (Cet): very very large diffuse galaxy–pretty round–very little central brightening, no nucleus–central 80% very slightly brighter–3.0′ round–poorly defined–13th-mag star just on S very slightly F edge of halo–SF galaxy by 9′ is a double star of 11.5 and 12.5-mag stars separated by 0.3′, with brighter F very slightly S of the fainter–on P very slightly N edge of field 14′ from galaxy is a 11.5-mag star–SP galaxy by 8′ is the F-most, 11th-mag vertex of an isosceles right triangle of 10.5- and 11th-mag stars; star P slightly N of it by 7′ is also 11th-mag; star 7′ S very slightly F-most one is 10.5-mag; hypotenuse faces SP and is 9′ long

As I settled in on my next target, NGC 1022, I stopped to check something; when I looked back, the star field had changed—one of the stars was moving exceedingly slowly through the field. I watched as it passed over the galaxy, calling for Jerry and Dan to have a look. This was the first of several geosynchronous satellites I would sweep up while scouring the skies in Cetus and Eridanus this particular evening.

NGC 1022 (Cet): much brighter than 991–1.3′ round–pretty well defined–small fairly-bright core and stellar nucleus–galaxy has a 13.5-mag star N slightly F by 2.5′–12th-mag star 5′ F very very slightly S of galaxy–10th-mag star NF galaxy by 10′–P and P very slightly N of the galaxy is a small triangle of 10th- and 11th-mag stars; two 11th-mag stars on side of triangle closest to galaxy, 12.5′ P galaxy; 10th-mag star 3′ P very slightly N of the more-S of the 11th-mag stars; 11th-mag stars separated by 4.5′; S-most of 11th-mag stars has a couple of threshold stars P very slightly S of it and F very slightly S of it–12.5-mag star 5′ SF galaxy

NGC 1084 (Eri): very very bright impressive galaxy–also Messier-worthy–elongated SP-NF–2.25′ x 1.25′–large bright core but no detectable nucleus–well-defined halo–due N by 14′ is the middle star of a bent line of three 10th-mag stars bending slightly toward galaxy; middle star is 10th-mag; 10th-mag star P slightly N of it by 6′; 10.5-mag star F and very slightly N of middle star by 7′–galaxy forms tip of arrowhead-shaped pattern with these three stars–two 12th-mag stars between galaxy and brighter stars in bent line; one N very slightly P by 9′ and one N very slightly F by 10′–S very slightly P galaxy by 12′ is a 12.5-mag star–13th-mag star SP galaxy by 7′–SP galaxy by 35′ is a 7th-mag star–SP galaxy is a pair of 8th- and 9th-mag stars 30′ from galaxy separated by 2.5′; brighter is P slightly N of the fainter–poor seeing this low

NGCs 936, 941, 955 (Cet): contrasting galaxies–936: considerably bright–large diffuse halo and small bright core, substellar nucleus–well defined–elongated P slightly N-F slightly S–core region only 25% of total diameter–1.75′ x 1.25′–has bent/crook asterism to NP; “handle” of crook is NP galaxy by 5.5′ and is 11.5-mag; 9.5-mag star NP that star by 4′; NP previous star by 4′ is 10th-mag star; 4′ NF that star is 10.5-mag star–NP brightest star in crook by 17′ is a 7.5-mag star; F and somewhat N of 7.5-mag star by 6′ is a 9th-mag star; 10th-mag star N slightly F previous by 7′–back to 936: F and slightly N of galaxy by 5.5′ is a 13th-mag star; SF that star by 5′ is a 12th-mag star; N of that star by 7.5′ is NGC 941: faint, diffuse, but fairly obvious–elongated NP-SF–1.5′ x 1.0′–poorly defined–NF galaxy by 17′ is a 12th-mag star–F and slightly N of 941 by 33′ is another galaxy (NGC 955)–much brighter than 941–elongated SP-NF–1.25′ x 0.67′–bright nucleus–brightish central region along length–definitely an inclined spiral–SF by 3′ is a 13th-mag star–F and S of galaxy by 11′ is a 12th-mag star–NF galaxy by 25′ is a 6th-mag star that’s somewhat reddish (even to my colorblind eye)–F and somewhat N of galaxy by 25′ is an 8th-mag star

NGC 1032 (Cet): reasonably bright–elongated SP-NF–1.25′ x 0.67–has a brighter core and substellar nucleus–fairly-evenly illuminated–maybe sharper on S and F edges?–forms a tiny diamond with three 13th- and 14th-mag stars; two 13th-mag stars are P (by 1.5′) and N slightly F (by 2′) of the galaxy and the 14th-mag star is NF the galaxy (by 0.75′)–N of the galaxy by 16′ is an 8.5-mag star–NF the galaxy by 21′ is a 10th-mag star–S of the galaxy by 5′ is an 11th-mag star–SP the galaxy by 16′ is a double star, the brighter component of which is about 0.25′ SP the fainter; 11th- and 12.5-mag stars

NGCs 1199, 1188, 1190 (Eri): 1199 quite bright–supposedly in the middle of Hickson 22, but can see two other galaxies with a LOT of effort–1199: elongated SP-NF–1.25′ x 0.75′–has a brightish core and a substellar nucleus–fairly well-defined/evenly illuminated–N slightly F by 3′ is a 12.5-mag star–due N by 6′ is a 13th-mag star–F the galaxy by 8′ is an 11th-mag star–star due N of galaxy: N slightly P that star by 3′ is a very faint glow elongated N-S (1188)–no central brightening–0.67′ x 0.3′–extremely faint, just above threshold-level–SP 1199 by 11′ is an 11-mag star–SP 1199 by 4′ is a fleeting apparition of a galaxy (1190) that is a smudge in averted–seemingly elongated NP-SF but too faint to be sure or to estimate size

NGC 1209 (Eri): not far from Hickson 22–P-F glow–1.25′ x 0.75′–edge-on or inclined spiral? [elliptical]–bright stellar nucleus and bright middle–halo well defined, regularly illuminated–F by 13′ is an 11th-mag star–6′ F and slightly S is a 13th-mag star; due S that star by 5′ is a 12th-mag star–NP galaxy by 7′ is a 12.5-mag star–19′ SF galaxy is the N-most vertex of a small triangle of 10th- and 11th-mag stars; this N-most vertex is the brightest at 10th-mag; SF that star by 4.5 is an 11th-mag star; another 11th-mag star 5′ F and very slightly S that last star; long side between brightest star and second 11th-mag star is 8′

NGC 1172 (Eri): fairly faint, apparently elliptical galaxy–slight SP-NF elongation–1.0′ x 0.75′–has a brighter core and faint substellar nucleus–not really well-defined but low in sky–due P galaxy by 3′ is a 13th-mag star–S very slightly P galaxy by 5′ is a 12.5-mag star–F and very very slightly N by 2′ is an 10.5-mag star–even more P galaxy by 8′ is an 11.5-mag star

NGCs 1400, 1407, 1393, 1391, 1394, 1383 (Eri): two ellipticals (likely) separated by 12′–1400: elongated very very slightly SP-NF–1.5′ x 1.25′–gradually brightening to somewhat brighter core and substellar nucleus–SP galaxy by 2′ is a 15th-mag star–S of galaxy by 19′ is an 8.5-mag star–double star due P galaxy by 15′; components are 10th- and 12.5-mag separated by 0.5′; brighter component SP fainter–12′ F and slightly N of 1400 is 1407: much bigger–pretty round–1.5′ round–slight bit of NP-SF elongation?–galaxy is N-most vertex of a triangle with a 13th-mag SF by 4.5′ and SP that star by 4.5′ is a 12.5-mag star (about 6.5′ S of galaxy)–N of galaxy by 6′ is S-most (13th-mag) vertex of another triangle of 12th- and 13th-mag stars; a 12th-mag star 3.5′ N very slightly P that star; 13th-mag star P very slightly S of second star by 3.5′–back to 1400: 20′ NP galaxy is brighter of a pair of galaxies (1393)–fairly obvious–elongated NP-SF–0.75′ x 0.67′–not easy but well defined–small brighter core and substellar nucleus–NF that galaxy by 5.5′ is another (1391)–much fainter–elongated P very slightly S-F very slightly N–0.5′ x 0.3′–almost no central brightening to speak of but a very faint stellar nucleus–N very slightly F 1391 by 1.5′ is a 15th-mag star; NF that star by 2.5′ is another galaxy (1394): elongated N-S–brighter than second of group–obvious substellar nucleus–0.67′ x 0.3′–better defined than previous–1.5′ N of 1394 is a 13th-mag star that disrupts view of galaxy–back to 1393: P slightly N galaxy by 8.5′ is a 12.5-mag star; NP that star by 7′ is another galaxy (1383): elongated SP-NF–reasonably well defined but faint–brightish substellar nucleus–0.75′ x 0.5′–SP galaxy by 1.5′ is a 13.5-mag star–NF galaxy by 1.25′ is a 14th-mag star

At this point, I was torn between my desire to keep observing and my need to make sure I got at least four hours’ sleep before my shift the next morning. I’d had Mrs. Caveman load me up with caffeine while shopping earlier in the day, so I could make it through eight hours on scant sleep, and it was certainly a rare thing to have such a great night in December. Against my common sense, I plowed on ahead.

Jerry had been looking for planetary nebulae with bright central stars for part of the night, and had shown me NGC 40 as a good example. I suggested NGC 1501 in Camelopardalis, and remembered that I had looked for Arp 141—the Deep Sky Forum’s “Object of the Week” for the first week of the month—at the gravel pit the previous time out, being skunked then both by the treeline and the early Moon rise (1501 is in Camelopardalis not far from Arp 141; hence the connection). Here, though, this colliding pair of galaxies was well placed, and there were several other objects along the way that I wanted to observe.

I took long looks at NGC 2683, the UFO Galaxy in Lynx, and NGC 2403 in Camelopardalis while working my way toward Arp 141. I had observed both of these before, but had only taken notes on the former; why I didn’t take any on 2403 (a Herschel object) while I was there I can’t say. I had also seen UGCs 3714 and 3697 (the Integral Sign Galaxy) before, but couldn’t pass up another shot at the Integral Sign—it was as elusive and fascinating as on the previous occasion. I eventually made my way over to my intended target, and was quite surprised to see it so easily, despite mistaking one of its nuclei for a star.

UGC 3730 (Arp 141) (Cam): DeepSkyForum’s Object of the Week: using 10mm Delos–difficult but obvious–1.0′ long–radiating S from a 14th-mag star [actually one of the galactic nuclei in this colliding pair]–wedge-shaped–0.5′ wide at the base–a couple of little knots within it, including one a third of the way down from the star to the base–along the edge of the base is brighter, with a knot at the end of the base–a knot on P side just off end of base–galaxy is definitely an irregular object–not consistently bright–isosceles triangle of 11th- and 12th-mag stars N slightly P galaxy; triangle 1′ on two sides and 1.25′ on long side–to P and SP is a Capricornus-shaped asterism made mostly of 10th- and 11th-mag stars–SF of the galaxy by 15′ is a 9th-mag star

By this point, the three of us all decided to call it a night, with the Moonrise imminent and having seen our share of celestial wonders for the evening. I took one long lasting look at the Orion Nebula—never break down the scope without a look at M42, as skipping it is nearly a cardinal sin among astro-types.

Teardown after a session usually takes about a half-hour from covering the primary mirror to pulling the van out onto the road. Unlike past drives down from Eagle’s Ridge, I went first, so as to ensure that the van was able to manage the icy gravel without hitting someone driving in front of me. Past the ice, I expected the fog from earlier in the evening, so thick it could’ve been used in Monty Python and the Holy Grail, to be waiting for us. But even the fog had retreated by this hour, and the drive home was considerably easier than the drive out had been.




Echoes of December

Tuesday, December 5th, found Mrs. Caveman and I on a bit of a mini-vacation to Seattle. The reason was simple: the fourth-to-last ever concert date in America by the great John “Mahavishnu” McLaughlin, British guitarist without peer and one of my own most-important musical influences. As a discovery of the great Miles Davis, McLaughlin helped in the creation of fusion jazz; as founder of the incandescent Mahavishnu Orchestra, McLaughlin took fusion to its most groundbreaking and eclectic extreme. As he was to perform a whole set of Mahavishnu music, there was no chance I was going to miss this show—I’d already missed out on King Crimson’s Seattle dates, and Midnight Oil’s Portland shows had sold out within an hour—so I snapped up a pair of tickets for the 5th, McLaughlin’s Portland show having already sold out before I could even get the date squared away with the Mrs. (The fact that the original Mahavishnu violinist, Jerry Goodman, is the brother of my next-door neighbor and was likely to be a special guest at the Portland show led to no small amount of head-meeting-desk on my part.)

The concert was spectacular. McLaughlin was ably supported by his protege, Jimmy Herring, and Herring’s band The Invisible Whip; their music was like a more fusoid version of Phish. McLaughlin’s own band, the 4th Dimension, was ridiculously good (especially bassist Étienne M’Bappé, who should make bass-worshippers forget about Victor Wooten). I actually got misty-eyed during the final bows—that this colossus of the jazz scene was hanging up his fretboards at age 75, playing as well as ever, was a jarring reminder of the inexorable creep of age.

We took the train home the next day, and it was during the train trip that I saw an e-mail through the EAS vine—skies were clear, and telescopes were being dusted off for a rare December session. A quick check of the Clear Sky Chart quelled my disappointment at being in transit home, rather than in transit to observe; the next night looked even better, and the forecast for the next whole week was optimistic.

So I spent Thursday prepping for a cold few hours at Eagle’s Rest, the gravel-pit site 4.4 miles down the road from Eagle’s Ridge. The Ridge was likely to be under a fair amount of snow, and Jerry had reported that high winds had prevented him from setting up on Wednesday night; he had ducked back down to the Rest, which was ringed with trees and thus avoided much of the wind. (This was also the drawback to using the Rest–anything below about 20˚ altitude was pretty much blocked out.) I wasn’t willing to test the Caveman-Mobile’s tires on a snow-covered gravel road, so I’d asked if we could observe from the Rest, which was below the snow line.

I was first there on Thursday, and started setting up as soon as I got there. It looked like a fine night, if a short one (Moonrise was at 9:33). The great advantage to winter observing is that the sky darkens so early; it’s possible to get six hours’ observing in and be home around midnight. Jerry and Kathy pulled up as I was unloading the scope, and after a brief bit of chatting, we finished putting scopes and gear together and settled in for the sky to darken. (Jerry tested Bob the Dob’s mirror with his new Ronchi eyepiece, and the grid of perfectly-straight lines it generated indicated a superb mirror. We all knew that already—Jerry had already complimented the 12.5″ primary—but it was nice to see it confirmed.)  Oggie arrived somewhat afterward, rounding out our dedicated quartet.

My plan, as it so often did, involved the Herschel 400 and Herschel II lists. Tonight {and the next time out, if it happened soon) was to be spent in Pisces and in snagging NGC 821, my last object in Aries.  Given the early Moonrise, I got straight to work once it was dark enough.


EAGLE’S REST (gravel pit)
MOON: 19 days; 77% illuminated, rose at 9:33 PM
SQM: 21.4 (at 9 PM)
NELM: not checked
WEATHER CONDITIONS: temps in low 40s, air still

Others present: JO, KO, OG

All observations: 12.5 f/5 Discovery truss-tube Dobsonian, 14mm ES 82˚ eyepiece (112x, 0.7˚ TFOV) unless otherwise noted

NGCs 7541, 7537 (Psc): pair of very elongated glows—7541: much the brighter and larger of the two—elongated P very slightly N-F very slightly S—off F end of galaxy just beyond edge of halo is a 13th-mag star—galaxy 2.25′ x 0.5’—pretty well defined—irregularly bright—has brighter central region but not a visible nucleus—7537: more ghostly, fainter—has a brighter core and substellar nucleus—elongated P slightly S-F slightly N—1.25′ x 0.3′, but hard to tell ends of halo—definitely noticeable in field but not easy at all—galaxies separated by 3.5′; 7537 is S and slightly P 7541—P the pair and slightly S of 7541 (in middle of two) by 7.5′ is an 11th-mag star—S slightly P 7537 by 9′ is a pair that are the N edge of very small scalene triangle; pair consists of 12.5- and 13.5-mag stars; brighter closer to galaxies and NF the dimmer star by 0.3’— almost due F 7541 by 24′ is a 10.5-mag star—N very slightly P 7541 by 30′ is a 7th-mag star

NGCs 7562, 7557 (Psc): above Circlet—7562: quite small—roundish at first glance—maybe has a little bit of P-F extension on very ends of halo—1.25′ x 0.75’—quite bright—brighter core that makes up majority (80%) of diameter—substellar nucleus—in middle of a line of three 10th-mag stars; one to NP by 9′, one SF by 8′, one SF by 11′; closer one SF is slightly fainter than other two—to N, NF, and F slightly S of galaxy are 13.5-14-mag stars, each about 3.5′ from galaxy (not quite a square)—P galaxy and very slightly N by 4.5′ is another extremely faint and extremely diffuse galaxy (7557)—very small—slightly smaller than 7562—very difficult, better in averted—threshold-level star a couple of arcminutes S of galaxy—seems to have very very faint nucleus but not much core—galaxy round? hard to tell—noticeable in direct vision, but not much more visible than that

NGC 7785 (Psc): up near Omega Psc—bright but fairly small—elongated very slightly NP-SF—1.0′ x 0.75’—fairly well-defined—regularly illuminated—bright core—stellar nucleus—threshold star 0.5′ N slightly F—another threshold star 3′ due NF—galaxy in middle of triangle, brightest star (8.5-mag) 5.5′ to P very slightly N; S very slightly F galaxy by 3.5′ is 10.5-mag star, other 10.5-mag F and slightly S by 3.3’—NP galaxy by 13′ is an 8th-mag star—P slightly N galaxy by 13′ is an 11th-mag star

NGC 7832 (Psc): down by parallelogram inc. 27 and 29 Psc—very small, roundish, nondescript galaxy—very slight NP-SF elongation—0.67 x 0.5’—slightly brighter core and fairly-obvious substellar nucleus—NF galaxy by 8′ is a 9th-mag star—SP by 18′ is an 8th-mag star—SF by 3.5′ is an 11th-mag star; F and slightly S of that star by 2′ is a 10.5-mag star

Although not on my list, I had noticed that Hickson 98 was nearby on the TriAtlas chart. I’m always on the lookout for Hickson Compact [Galaxy] Groups, as there’s not much more interesting than small clumps of galaxies. That the members of this one had NGC numbers made it impossible to pass up, as I was very likely to be able to see it in a “mere” 12.5-inch scope.

NGCs 7783A, 7783B, 7783C (Hickson 98) (Psc): tough! Using Delos to split—galaxies are 15′ S of an 8th-mag star and 2′ S of a 10th-mag star—very difficult to separate—piled on top of each other—almost due F the group by 5.5′ is a 12th-mag star—main “mass” of galaxies (7783A/B) is elongated P very slightly N-F very slightly S—main mass is 1.25′ x 0.3’—appear to be a couple of distinct nuclei involved, although one may be very faint star, possibly outside main mass (so faint it’s hard to tell!)—SF main mass is a detached section that may be another galaxy (7783C)—very difficult to separate!

NGCs 488, 490 (Psc): 488: large and impressive—elliptical profile although I know it’s an Sa spiral—large halo—3′ x 2.25’—elongated mostly N-S, maybe S very very slightly P-N very very slightly F—small bright core and a substellar nucleus—just off S slightly F edge of halo is a 12th-mag star—SP galaxy by 3.5′ is a 10.5-mag star—due F galaxy by 9′ is an 8th-mag star; SF that star by 14′ is a 10th-mag star—N very slightly P galaxy by 6′ from halo is an 11th-mag star—N of galaxy by 12′ is a 13th-mag star; not quite halfway between that star and 8th-mag star F 488 is a threshold-mag glow (490)—very small and faint—NF 488 by 8′ —mostly an averted-vision object—star just off S edge of 488’s halo and the star SP 488 are two middle and two brightest stars in a line of four evenly-spaced stars, each about 3.5′ apart that run along edge of field due F to P slightly S of 488

My next target, NGC 524, was at the center of a very busy group, according to the TriAtlas. I spent extra time here ferreting out as many of the other members of the 524 Group as I could manage without being absolutely painstaking about it; there were only about 90 minutes before Moonrise, and I had a number of other galaxies I wanted to get to.  But I spent about a half-hour here in this rich degree of sky, and was well rewarded for it.

NGCs 524, 518, 516, 525, 522, 532 (Psc): 524: in complicated field—bright, round galaxy—1.75′ round—bright core and bright stellar nucleus—well-defined galaxy—surrounded by a group of faint stars; to N slightly F by 2′ is a 13th-mag star; S very slightly P by 2′ is a 12.5-mag star; 2.5′ SF galaxy is a 13th-mag star; 1.5′ F slightly S of galaxy is 14.5-mag star—SP 524 by 6′ is a 10th-mag star; 6′ that star is another 10th-mag star; P and slightly S of that second star is a faint glow (518): elongated P very slightly N-F very slightly S—very small, 0.5′ x 0.25’—has threshold stars to SP and P slightly S—in averted a flash that there’s a stellar nucleus but no other real brightening—not well-defined—back to 524: P and slightly N of 524 by 10′ is another faint galaxy (516): larger and brighter than 518—0.75′ x 0.3′ but not well defined—elongated SP-NF—has some central concentration but hard to define—very faint averted-level substellar nucleus—NP 524 by 8′ is a 10.5-mag star—due F that star by 2.5′ is a 11.5-mag star—10.5-mag star forms an isosceles triangle with 524 and 516—N of 524 by 9′ is a thin N-S streak (525): very difficult—0.67′ x 0.5’—has a 12.5-mag star NP by 2′ that makes observation difficult—very faint central concentration, maybe very faint stellar nucleus—N of 525, 30′ N of 524 is 522: larger and brighter than others except 524—elongated SP-NF—1.25′ x 0.5’—not much central brightening—in steady moments a faint core is visible but no nucleus—in fairly-barren field—10th-mag star 17′ due N of galaxy—SF 524 by 19′ is a largish glow (532), brighter than others in group aside from 524—elongated SP-NF—1.5′ x 0.5’—irregularly bright—not much core, but occasional flash of stellar nucleus?—better defined than other small ones in group, second-most impressive of group after 524

NGC 514 (Psc): very round, very very diffuse galaxy—almost no central brightening at all—core is only very slightly brighter than halo and largish—face-on spiral?—2.25′ round—threshold star on F edge of halo—due F galaxy by 2.75′ is a 9.5-mag star that obstructs view—not much detail in galaxy—P and slightly S of galaxy by 3.5′ is a 13th-mag star—SF galaxy by 7′ and 9′ are 12th– and 11.5-mag stars (respectively)—these make up southern edge of equilateral triangle whose N vertex is 13.5 mag

NGC 718 (Psc): near Al-Rischa—1.25′ round—gradually brightening to substellar nucleus—well defined—nice obvious galaxy—not a lot of detail—23′ due P (just out of edge of field) is northernmost of a long zig-zag line of seven 9th-12.5-mag stars that starts at N and moves S, bends F, and continues S; northernmost star is 9.5 mag, 24′ due P 718; 3.5′ S slightly P that star is brightest in pattern at 9th-mag—S slightly P galaxy by 5′ is a 12th-mag star—10th-mag star N of galaxy by 9.5′

NGCs 741, 742 (Psc): in non-descript field—741: galaxy fairly interesting—round, with large brighter core—substellar nucleus—1.25′ round—pretty well defined—on F side of halo looks as if a bit of detached halo or contacting galaxy (742)—P and very slightly N of 741 by 2.25′ is an 11.5-mag star—N and very slightly P 741 by 5.5′ is brighter and more-southern of a very faint pair (13.5 and 14.5-mags) separated by 0.5′ with fainter due N brighter—on N, P and F edges of field are 11th-mag stars forming a triangle—galaxies just inside southern edge of triangle, in middle of edge

NGC 821 (Ari): very bright—small—round—obvious core—maybe a difficult substellar nucleus?—brightish (9.5-mag) star just on NP edge of halo—S very very slightly P by 2′ from galaxy is a 13.5-mag star—galaxy well defined—12′ N very slightly P galaxy is an 8th-mag star—on SF edge of field is an arc of four 11th-mag stars, from due S of galaxy to F galaxy

By the time I was done with NGC 821—which cleared out the constellation Aries as far as Herschel objects went—the sky was starting to brighten slightly, with the Milky Way fading in richness. The Moon hadn’t yet risen, but it was making its presence known already.  The Orion Nebula was just above the treetops from my position in the clearing, and I spent a few minutes crunched down awkwardly, peering into a very low eyepiece at this most stunning of celestial objects.  I also swept up the Crab Nebula before deciding  that it was time to call it a night. (Earlier, I’d seen NGC 188, the most-northern and possibly the oldest open cluster in our sky, in Jerry’s Trackball.)

Leaving an observing session is always difficult when the sky is still clear, but I had no regrets this night. It had been a fine, rewarding session, neither too brief nor too exhausting, and not even cold enough to require using gloves (although chemical hand warmers had been a great boon). I’d captured 10 more Herschels, a number of other galaxies in the vicinity of my intended targets, and an intriguing Hickson group that I would need to return to if the weather forecast stayed true. As I write this, a few days later, the sky is still clear and inviting, and my gear is awaiting being loaded into the van for another trip down to the mountain.


The Norway of the Year

It seemed too good to be true—a clear New Moon weekend in November? Ralph Wiggum would proclaim it “unpossible.” It would indeed be unpossible, as Sunday the 19th was cloudy and (eventually) as rainy as one would expect from a late fall day in the Pacific Northwest. But Saturday, while cirrus-streaked throughout the day, still offered hope via the Clear Sky Clock, and hope was enough to make the hour’s drive to Eagle’s Ridge (the only one of our observing sites that offered potential observing hours).

Scaring up fellow observers was more of a challenge than expected, though. Perhaps it was the iffy forecast, or the threat of fog, or the hovering-around-freezing temperatures. In any event, only Jerry and I were willing or able to chance it. Sunset was at 5 PM; I loaded the Caveman-Mobile at 3:30 and was on the road by 4.

I didn’t expect to see snow on the road up the mountain—in fact, living in the valley, it was easy to forget that it was even the right time of year for higher-elevation snow. But the occasional white patch along the roadside turned to solid snow on the unpaved final half-mile to the site. It was only an inch or so worth, and unevenly accumulated along the gravel road, but it was enough to remind me that it was essentially winter outside of the valley.

Jerry had his trackball scope already set up when I got there; he’d just had the 10″ mirror refigured and realuminized, and had a recently-purchased 7mm Type 1 Nagler to try out. His plan for the evening was a sweep of double stars in Pisces, putting the 7mm and the mirror to the test. Mine, as usual, was to track down the Herschel objects in the fall sky—in Pegasus, Pisces, Cetus, Eridanus, Aries, and Triangulum.


The spur-road observing site at Eagle’s Ridge, complete with first snow.

The sky was half-covered in cirrus clouds, but it looked to be clearing.  I set up Bob the Dob, pleased that it was still fairly close in collimation after a month of sitting idle. A few minutes’ observation of M15 and Neptune bought time for the sky to clear and darken enough to jump straight into the galaxy fields of Pegasus. It was 6:15, and I was already at work.



TRANSPARENCY: 3-6 (variable cirrus)
SQM: 21.2 (at 10 PM)
NELM: not checked
WEATHER CONDITIONS: temps in low 30s, windy, light dew

Others present: JO

All observations: 12.5″ f/5 Discovery truss-tube Dobsonian, 14mm ES 82˚ eyepiece (112x, 0.7˚ TFOV)

NGC 7042 (Peg): a tough little galaxy off the nose of Pegasus–surprised it’s a Herschel–roundish–0.67′ round–has a very diffuse halo–small but not well-defined core–may have a faint stellar nucleus but it’s hard to hold if present–NF galaxy by 2.5′ is an 11th-mag star–SF galaxy by 1.5′ is the brighter of a pair at 13.5 mag; fainter is F and slightly S brighter by 0.5′ and is 14th-mag–field full of fainter (11th and below) stars with occasional brighter star–S and slightly F galaxy by 22′ is a line of 10th-12th mag stars oriented P-F in a slight arc on S edge of field–not much to galaxy–due F is supposed to be 7043 but no hint of it

Pegasus I Galaxy Cluster (NGCs 7611, 7619, 7623, 7626, 7631) (Peg/Psc): anchored by NGCs 7619 and 7626–7619: 1.0′ across, round–has a bright substellar nucleus and diffuse but obvious core that’s pretty compressed–halo fades into background, not well-defined–very much an elliptical profile–7626: slightly larger, more diffuse than 7619–nucleus and core region larger but less apparent than those of 7619–7626 appears to have a threshold star just off P edge of halo–1.25′ round–two galaxies separated by 7′, almost due P-F–between galaxies and N of them by 5.5′ is a 10th-mag star that forms a nearly-equilateral triangle with galaxies–6′ N and very slightly F that star is another galaxy [7623]–much smaller than previous two–0.6′ x 0.5′, slightly elongated–oriented N-S–has very faint halo but brighter core–substellar nucleus–0.75′ NP galaxy is a 14th-mag star–to SP and NF of galaxy by 4′ each are 13th-mag stars–back to 7619: 15′ SP 7619 is a 7th-mag star–N very slightly P that star is by 6′ is another galaxy [7611]–has a prominent nucleus and a brightish core–elongated N slightly P-S slightly F–0.67′ x 0.3′–small but fairly obvious–halo fairly diffuse, better defined than 7619/7626 pair–a number of brighter stars in field–back to 7626: due F 7626 by 11′ is another galaxy [7631]–elongated due P-F–more difficult of group, very diffuse–not much central brightening–sometimes core is more apparent–0.75′ x 0.3′–probably an edge-on spiral–not easy, would be easy to miss without other galaxies nearby–NP galaxy by 5′ is tiny isosceles triangle about 1′ on equal sides and 1.5′ on third side–triangle composed of 12th- and 13th-mag stars–long side of triangle to N and brightest vertex to S–[missed several other galaxies in area, in part due to conditions]

The wind picked up somewhere during the course of the evening; at times, it drowned out my voice on my audio notes. Among other things, it kept blowing my copy of Sky Atlas 2000.0 open to other charts than the one I was using (mostly Charts 4, 10, and 17).

NGC 7156 (Peg): difficult to observe and find–had to hop from 25 Aqr to 11 Peg and over–pretty round–very slightly elongated NP-SF–0.75′ x 0.67′–very diffuse–not much central concentration–very slightly brighter core–not at all bright–N very slightly P galaxy by 11′ is a 10th-mag star–S slightly F galaxy by 7′ is the P-most of a pair of 9- and 9.5-mag stars; brighter NP fainter by 1.5′–F galaxy and slightly S by 10′ is an 8.5-mag star–when transparency is poor galaxy is a tough catch–N and SP galaxy are several faint stars; a 13th-mag star to N by 6′ and a 12th-mag star to SP by 3.5′–several fainter stars in 4-5′ radius from galaxy

NGCs 772, 770 (Ari): large and bright (seen many times)–elongated NP-SF–2.5′ x 1.75′–very bright core and a long, diffuse halo–in moments of steady seeing appears to have substellar nucleus–not picking up any sense of heavy spiral arm seen in photos–core and nucleus seem offset to SF end of galaxy–P galaxy by 3′ from nucleus is a 13.5-mag star–due S of galaxy by 7′ is an 11th-mag star–P and somewhat S of galaxy by 15′ is a 10th-mag star–S slightly F 772 by 12′ is another 12th-mag star–SP galaxy by 3.5′ is 770: very small fuzzy spot–not more than 15″ across–very faint halo and bright substellar nucleus

NGC 1012 (Ari): interesting little galaxy in part because it looks like it has a star just on edge of halo–galaxy faint and rather diffuse–elongated S somewhat P-N somewhat F–1.25′ x 0.5′–brighter core–no visible nucleus, but hard to tell with 14th-mag star on center of F edge of galaxy–unless dark obscuration between halo edge and nucleus?–star is making it hard to make out details in galaxy–galaxy in middle of long distorted pentagon of 14th-mag and fainter stars oriented vaguely N-S; pentagon 10′ from top to bottom and 4′ at widest; three of stars N of galaxy, two S–to SF of galaxy, just outside field (25′) is an 8th-mag star which has a 10th-mag star SF it by 3′–S slightly F galaxy by 9′ is a 12th-mag star–also used 10mm Delos to get better look at galaxy

NGC 1156 (Ari)–long search needed!–large fuzzy diffuse glow–elongated S slightly P-N slightly F–2.0′ x 1.25′–irregularly bright–brighter central region and mottled appearance to halo–core not really well-defined but halo fairly well-defined–no visible nucleus–12.5-mag star on N slightly P edge of halo–face-on barred spiral? [actually Magellanic-type irregular]–brighter along major axis across middle, like a bar–very nice galaxy–due F galaxy by 7′ is a 9th-mag star–a 9th-mag star N slightly P galaxy by 13′–P galaxy and N is a line of three stars, the closest of which is 11.5-mag star on S end of line, and is 4.5′ from galaxy–line is 2.25′ long and runs N-S; other two in line and 13th-mag star in middle and another 11th-mag star on N end of line

NGC 925 (Tri)–huge!–faint, diffuse smear of a galaxy–elongated P slightly N-F slightly S–4.0′ x 2.5′–brighter central region but no defined core—-irregularly-bright halo–not getting a nucleus but there are two stars on N edge that are hampering nucleus detection; 13.5 and 14th-mag stars–another 13.5-mag star to S not far from edge of halo–S of galaxy by 5.5′ is a 12.5-mag star–galaxy fades into background–maybe brightening along major axis in averted vision–losing galaxy into sky haze–need to revisit


By this point, the combination of cold and cirrus—which had been making its presence felt more and more persistently throughout the evening—conspired to make staying out less worthwhile.  We took several minutes to explore M42, the Great Orion Nebula, before tearing scopes down and heading back down toward the valley. Increasingly-frosty roads and thickening fog made our decision to leave at that point a good one; we’d still managed six hours’ observing in November, which was six more than I’d managed to get in during my two previous Novembers here.